9th May 1866 – 19th February 1915 Shri Gopal Krishna Gokhale – Active Member Of Indian National Congress

Gopal Krishna Gokhale

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Born 9 May 1866
Kothluk, Ratnagiri Dist.,Bombay Presidency, British India
Died 19 February 1915 (aged 48)
Bombay, Bombay Presidency, British India
Nationality Indian
Organization Indian National Congress, Deccan Education Society
Movement Indian Independence movement
Religion Hinduism

Gopal Krishna Gokhale, CIE About this sound pronunciation  (9 May 1866 – 19 February 1915) was one of the founding social and political leaders during the Indian Independence Movement against the British Empire in India. Gokhale was a senior leader of the Indian National Congress and founder of the Servants of India Society. Through the Society as well as the Congress and other legislative bodies he served in, Gokhale promoted not only primarily independence from the British Empire but also social reform. To achieve his goals, Gokhale followed two overarching principles: non-violence and reform within existing government institutions.

Background and education[edit]

Gopal Krishna Gokhale was born on 9 May 1866 in Kothluk village ofGuhagar taluka in Ratnagiri district, in present-day Maharashtra (then part of the Bombay Presidency) in a Chitpavan Brahmin Family. Despite being relatively poor, his family ensured that Gokhale received an English education, which would place Gokhale in a position to obtain employment as a clerk or minor official in the British Raj. Being one of the first generations of Indians to receive a university education, Gokhale graduated from Elphinstone College in 1884. Gokhale’s education tremendously influenced the course of his future career – in addition to learning English, he was exposed to western political thought and became a great admirer of theorists such as John Stuart Mill andEdmund Burke.[1] Although he would come to criticise unhesitatingly many aspects of the English colonial regime, the respect for English political theory and institutions that Gokhale acquired in his college years would remain with him for the rest of his life. Gopal Krishna Gokhale, was one of the founders of social and political leaders during the Indian Independence Movement against the British Empire in India. Gokhale was a senior leader of the Indian National Congress and founder of the Servants of India Society. Through the Society as well as the Congress and other legislative bodies he served in, Gokhale promoted not only primarily independence from the British Empire but also social reform.. To achieve his goals, Gokhale followed two overarching principles: non-violence and reform within existing government institutions.

Indian National Congress and Rivalry with Bal Gangadhar Tilak[edit]

Gokhale became a member of the Indian National Congress in 1889, as a protégé of social reformer Mahadev Govind Ranade. Along with other contemporary leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Dadabhai Naoroji, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai and Annie Besant, Gokhale fought for decades to obtain greater political representation and power over public affairs for common Indians. He was moderate in his views and attitudes, and sought to petition the British authorities by cultivating a process of dialogue and discussion which would yield greater British respect for Indian rights. Gokhale had visited Ireland[2] and had arranged for an Irish nationalist, Alfred Webb, to serve as President of the Indian National Congress in 1894. The following year, Gokhale became the Congress’s joint secretary along with Tilak. In many ways, Tilak and Gokhale’s early careers paralleled – both were Chitpavan Brahmin (though unlike Gokhale, Tilak was wealthy[citation needed]), both attended Elphinstone College, both became mathematics professors, and both were important members of the Deccan Education Society. When both became active in the Congress, however, the divergence of their views concerning how best to improve the lives of Indians became increasingly apparent.[3]

Gokhale’s first major confrontation with Tilak centred around one of his pet issues, the Age of Consent Bill introduced by the British Imperial Government, in 1891–92. Gokhale and his fellow liberal reformers, wishing to purge what they saw as superstitions and abuses in their native Hinduism, supported the Consent Bill to curb child marriage abuses. Though the Bill was not extreme, only raising the age of consent from ten to twelve, Tilak took issue with it; he did not object per se to the idea of moving towards the elimination of child marriage, but rather to the idea of British interference with Hindu tradition. For Tilak, such reform movements were not to be sought under imperial rule when they would be enforced by the British, but rather after independence was achieved, when Indians would enforce it on themselves. The bill however became law in the Bombay Presidency.[4] In 1905, Gokhale became president of the Indian National Congress. Gokhale used his now considerable influence to undermine his longtime rival, Tilak, refusing to support Tilak as candidate for president of the Congress in 1906. By now, Congress was split: Gokhale and Tilak were the respective leaders of the moderates and the “extremists” (the latter now known by the term, “aggressive nationalists”) in the Congress. Tilak was an advocate of civil agitation and direct revolution[citation needed]to overthrow the British Empire, whereas Gokhale was a moderate reformist. As a result, the Congress Party split into two wings and was largely robbed of its effectiveness for a decade. The two sides would later patch up in 1916 after Gokhale died.

Servants of India Society[edit]

In 1905, when Gokhale was elected president of the Indian National Congress and was at the height of his political power, he founded the Servants of India Society to specifically further one of the causes dearest to his heart: the expansion of Indian education. For Gokhale, true political change in India would only be possible when a new generation of Indians became educated as to their civil and patriotic duty to their country and to each other. Believing existing educational institutions and the Indian Civil Service did not do enough to provide Indians with opportunities to gain this political education, Gokhale hoped the Servants of India Society would fill this need. In his preamble to the SIS’s constitution, Gokhale wrote that “The Servants of India Society will train men prepared to devote their lives to the cause of country in a religious spirit, and will seek to promote, by all constitutional means, the national interests of the Indian people.”[5] The Society took up the cause of promoting Indian education in earnest, and among its many projects organised mobile libraries, founded schools, and provided night classes for factory workers.[6] Although the Society lost much of its vigor following Gokhale’s death, it still exists to this day, though its membership is small.

Involvement with British Imperial Government[edit]

Gokhale, though an earlier leader of the Indian nationalist movement, was not primarily concerned with independence but rather with social reform; he believed such reform would be best achieved by working within existing British government institutions, a position which earned him the enmity of more aggressive nationalists such as Tilak. Undeterred by such opposition, Gokhale would work directly with the British throughout his political career to further his reform goals.

In 1899, Gokhale was elected to the Bombay Legislative Council. He was elected to the Council of India of Governor-General of India on 22 May 1903 as non-officiating member representing Bombay Province.[7] He later served to Imperial Legislative Council after its expansion in 1909. He there obtained a reputation as extremely knowledgeable and contributed significantly to the annual budget debates. Gokhale developed so great a reputation among the British that he was invited to London to meet with secretary of state Lord John Morley, with whom he established a rapport. Gokhale would help during his visit to shape the Morley-Minto Reforms introduced in 1909. Gokhale was appointed a CIE (Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire) in the 1904 New Year’s Honours List, a formal recognition by the Empire of his service.

Mentor to both Jinnah and Gandhi[edit]

Gokhale was famously a mentor to Mahatma Gandhi in his formative years. In 1912, Gokhale visited South Africa at Gandhi’s invitation. As a young barrister, Gandhi returned from his struggles against the Empire in South Africa and received personal guidance from Gokhale, including a knowledge and understanding of India and the issues confronting common Indians. By 1920, Gandhi emerged as the leader of the Indian Independence Movement. In his autobiography, Gandhi calls Gokhale his mentor and guide. Gandhi also recognised Gokhale as an admirable leader and master politician, describing him as pure as crystal, gentle as a lamb, brave as a lion and chivalrous to a fault and the most perfect man in the political field.[8] Despite his deep respect for Gokhale, however, Gandhi would reject Gokhale’s faith in western institutions as a means of achieving political reform and ultimately chose not to become a member of Gokhale’sServants of India Society.[9] Gokhale was also the role model and mentor of Mohammed Ali Jinnah, the future founder ofPakistan, who in 1912, aspired to become the “Muslim Gokhale”. Even the Aga Khan ( the Spiritual Head of the Islamic sect of Ismaili Khojas & grandfather of the present Aga Khan) has stated in his autobiography that Gokhale’s influence on his thinking was probably considerable.


Gokhale continued to be politically active through the last years of his life. This included extensive travelling abroad: in addition to his 1908 trip to England, he also visited South Africa in 1912, where his protégé Gandhi was working to improve conditions for the Indian minority living there. Meanwhile, he continued to be involved in the Servants of India Society, the Congress, and the Legislative Council while constantly advocating the advancement of Indian education. All these stresses took their toll, however, and Gokhale died on 19 February 1915 at an early age of forty-nine. Bal Gangadhar Tilak, his lifelong political opponent, said at his funeral: “This diamond of India, this jewel of Maharashtra, this prince of workers is taking eternal rest on funeral ground. Look at him and try to emulate him”.

Family and Descendants[edit]

Unfortunately, not much has been written about Gokhale’s marital life. He was married twice; his first marriage took place in 1880 when he was in his teens to Savitribai, who suffered from an incurable ailment. He married a second time in 1887 while Savitribai was still alive. His second wife died after giving birth to two daughters in 1899. Gokhale did not marry again and his children were looked after by his relations[10] [11]

One of his daughters, Kashi(Anandibai), was married to Justice S.B.Dhavle ICS. She also had three children whose names were: Gopal Shankar Dhavle, Balwant Shankar Dhavle IAS and Meena Rajwade. Out of these three children, two of them had children. Balwant Shankar Dhavle and Nalini Dhavle (née Sathe) have three children: Shridhar Balwant Dhavle FCA, Vidyadhar Balwant Dhavle IFS and Jyotsna Balwant Dhavle. Vidyadhar Balwant Dhavle and Aabha Dixit have two sons Abhishek Vidyadhar Dhavle and Jaidev Vidyadhar Dhavle, who are the most recent direct descendants of Gopal Krishna Gokhale. The ancestral house was constructed by Gopal Krishna Gokhale for his family in Pune, and it continues to be the residence of the Gokhale-Dhavle descendants to this day.

Impact on Indian Nationalist Movement[edit]

Gokhale’s impact on the course of the Indian nationalist movement was very considerable. Through his close relationship with the highest levels of British imperial government, Gokhale forced India’s colonial rulers to recognise the capabilities of a new generation of educated Indians and to include them more than ever before in the governing process. Gokhale’s firm belief in the need for universal education deeply inspired the next great man on the Indian political stage, Mohandas K. Gandhi; his faith in western political institutions though rejected by Gandhi, was adopted by an independent India in 1950.


His name is commemorated in the names of the Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics in Pune, the Gokhale Memorial Girls’ College in Kolkata, the Gokhale Hall in Chennai, the Gokhale Centenary College in Ankola, the Gopal Krishna Gokhale College in Kolhapur, Gokhale Road in Mumbai, Gokhale Institute of Public Affairs in Bangalore,and Gokhale Hostel (of Motilal Vigyan Mahavidyalaya) in Bhopal . Gokhale Education Society which is running more than50 Educational Institutions in (Nashik,Mumbai,Konkan)established by Prin.T.A.Kulkarni in 1918.

Gopal Krishna Gokhale

Born: May 9, 1866
February: 19, 1915

Gopal Krishna GokhaleGopal Krishna Gokhale was one of the pioneers of the Indian Independence Movement. Gokhale was a senior leader of the Indian National Congress. He was one of the most learned men in the country, a leader of social and political reformists and one of the earliest and founding leaders of the Indian Independence Movement. Being one of the first generations of Indians to receive college education, Gokhale was respected widely in the Indian intellectual community.

Gopal Krishna Gokhale was born in Kothluk in Ratnagiri District, Maharastra. His parents, Krishna Rao and Valubai. Gokhale received his early education at Rajaram High School in Kothapur and later, in 1884 moved to Bombay to receive higher education.

Gokhale was reportedly, one of the first Indians to complete graduation. In 1884, after the completion of his graduation in arts at the Elphinstone College, Bombay, Gokhale joined as professor of history and political economy at the Fergusson College, Poona. He remained on the staff, finally as principal, until 1902. Becoming actively identified with the National Congress movement, he was for some years the joint secretary and in 1905 president at the Benares session. The higher education made Gokhale understand the importance of liberty, democracy and parliamentary system of the government.

In 1985-86, Gopal Krishna Gokhale met a great scholar and a social reformer Mahadev Govind Ranade. Ranade was a great leader, judge, scholar and above all social reformer. He regarded Mahadev Govinda Ranade as his “Guru”. Ranade helped Gokhale in establishing the “Servants of India Society” in 1905. The main objective of this society was to train Indians to raise their voices and serve their country. Gokhale also worked with Ranade in a quarterly Journal, called “Sarvajanik”. The Journal wrote about the public questions of the day in frank and fearless manner.

Gokhale was the secretary of the “Reception Committee” of the 1895 Poona session of Indian National Congress. From this session, Gokhale became a prominent face of the Indian National Congress. For a while Gokhale was a member of the Bombay Legislative Council where he spoke strongly against the then Government.
Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Gokhale dedicated his life to the advancement of the nation’s welfare. In 1905, Gokhale was sent by the Congress on a special mission to England to spread India’s constitutional demands among the British leaders.

Gokhale was instrumental in the formation of the Minto-Morley Reforms of 1909, which was tabled and eventually transformed into law. But unfortunately, the Reforms Act became law in 1909 and it was disappointing to see that despite Gokhale’s efforts, the people were not given a proper democratic system. However, Gokhale’s efforts were clearly not in vain. Indians now had access to seats of the highest authority within the government, and their voices were more audible in matters of public interest.

Gokhale, during his visit to South Africa in 1912, met Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, popularly known as Mahatma Gandhi. Gokhale made him aware of the issues confronting common people back in India. In his autobiography, Gandhi calls Gokhale his “mentor and guide”. Not only Gandhi, Gokhale also guide Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan. Jinnah later aspired to become the “Muslim Gokhale”.

The years of hard work and devotion of Gopal Krishna Gokhale did immense contribution for the country. But, unfortunately, excessive exertion and the resulting exhaustion only aggravated his diabetes and cardiac asthma. The end came peacefully, on February 19, 1915, the great leader passed away.


  1. Jump up^ Stanley Wolpert, Tilak and Gokhale: Revolution and Reform in the Making of Modem India, Berkeley, U. California (1962), 22.
  2. Jump up^ Cited by John Hume in his acceptance speech for the 2001 Gandhi Peace Prize. Reported in Seminar Magazine No.511 March 2002, accessed at [1] 26 July 2006
  3. Jump up^ Jim Masselos, Indian Nationalism: An History, Bangalore, Sterling Publishers (1991), 95.
  4. Jump up^ D. Mackenzie Brown, Indian Political Thought from Ranade to Bhave, Los Angeles: University of California Press (1961), 77.
  5. Jump up^ Stanley Wolpert, Tilak and Gokhale: Revolution and Reform in the Making of Modem India, Berkeley, U. California (1962), 158–160.
  6. Jump up^ Carey A. Watt, “Education for National Efficiency: Constructive Nationalism in North India, 1909–1916,” in Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 31, No. 2 (May 1997), 341–342, 355.
  7. Jump up^ India List and India Office List for 1905. Harrison and Sons, London. 1905. Retrieved 11 February 2010.
  8. Jump up^ Leadbeater, Tim (2008). Britain and India 1845–1947. London: Hodder Education. p38.
  9. Jump up^ Jim Masselos, Indian Nationalism: An History, Bangalore, Sterling Publishers (1991), 157.
  10. Jump up^ HOYLAND, JOHN S. (1933). Gopal Krishna Gokhale: His life and Speeches. CALCUTTA: Y.M.C.A. PUBLISHING HOUSE 5 RUSSELL STREET. p. 29.
  11. Jump up^ SASTRI., V.S. SRINIVASA (1937). Life of Gopal Krishna Gokhale. Bangalore India: The Bangalore Press.

Further reading[edit]

  • S. Wolpert, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Gopal Krishna Gokhale (1962)
  • J. S. Hoyland, Gopal Krishna Gokhale (1933)

Web Results

Gopal Krishna Gokhale , CIE ) (9 May 1866 – 19 February 1915) was one of the founding social and political leaders during the Indian Independence Movement against …
Born in Kothluk, a village in Maharashtra, on May 9, 1866, Gopal Krishna Gokhale was raised in the home of his maternal grandfather. This village was not too far from …
Gopal Krishna Gokhale‘s contribution can be drawn from the fact that leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and Mohammad Ali Jinnah regarded him as their Guru.
Here is a brief biography and history of Gopal Krishna Gokhale. Read information on life of Indian freedom fighterGopal Krishna Gokhale.
Gopal Krishna Gokhale‘s endeavors created a new kind of Indians, who would play an important role in making India independent.
Gopal Krishna Gokhale, (born May 9, 1866, Ratnagiri district, India —died Feb. 19, 1915, Pune), social reformer who founded a sectarian organization to work for …
Gopal Krishna Gokhale. Gopal Krishna Gokhale (1866-1915) was an Indian nationalist leader. President of the Indian National Congress, he also served in the Imperial …
The man whom Mahatma Gandhi referred to as his political guru was none other than the spirited Gopal KrishnaGokhale. Born in the district of Ratnagiri (Maharashtra …
Gopal Krishna Gokhale‘s biggest contribution to India was as a teacher, nurturer of a whole new generation of leaders conscious to their responsibilities to a wider …
Background and Education. Gopal Krishna Gokhale was born May 9, 1866 in Kotaluk, Maharashtra, a state on the western coast of India that was then part of the Bombay …

External links[edit]


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s