Balochistan – A country of Asia (1886 Gazeteer of India)
July 18, 2011
From an empire that was! A gazetteer of the territories under the government of the viceroy of India (1886)
from the GAZETTEEE OF INDIA:
BALOCHISTAN. — A country of Asia contiguous to India. It is bounded on the north by Afghanistan, on the east by the Punjab and Sind, on the south by the Arabian Sea, on the west by Persia. Area, about 106,500 sq. miles ; being between lat. 24° 50′— 30° 20′, and long. 61° 10′— 68° 38′. Towns, Khelat, whose Khan is the most powerful chief of the country ; and Quetta, a British cantonment.
Gazeteer presented to the University of Toronto Library, by the Ontario Legislative Library, 1980
Location of Balochistan
|Established||14 August 1947|
|• Body||Provincial Assembly|
|• Governor||Muhammad Achakzai(PkMAP)|
|• Chief Minister||Abdul Malik Baloch (NP)|
|• Legislature||Unicameral (124 seats)|
|• High Court||Balochistan High Court|
|• Total||347,190 km2(134,050 sq mi)|
|Time zone||PKT (UTC+5)|
|ISO 3166 code||PK-BA|
|Main Language(s)||Urdu (National), Balochi,Pashto, Sindhi, Brahui|
|Provincial Assembly seats||65|
Balochistan (Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچِستان, Balōčistān, pronounced [bəloːt͡ʃɪst̪ɑːn]), is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, located in the southwestern region of the country. Its provincial capital and largest city isQuetta. It shares borders with Punjab and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas to the northeast, Sindh to the southeast, the Arabian Sea to the south, Iran to the west, and Afghanistan to the north.
Most of the province’s inhabitants are Balochs, Pashtuns and Brahuis though there are smaller communities of Iranian Balochs, Hazaras, Sindhis, Punjabis, and other settlers such as the Uzbeks, and Turkmens. The name Balochistan means “the land of the Baloch” in many regional languages. Although largely underdeveloped, the provincial economy is dominated by natural resources, especially its natural gas fields, which supply the entire country. Gwadar Port also plays a significant role in the economic development of the province.
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Pakistani Balochistan occupies the very southeastern-most portion of the Iranian Plateau, the site of the earliest known farming settlements in the pre-Indus Valley Civilization era, the earliest of which was Mehrgarh, dated at 7000 BC, located in modern-day Pakistani Balochistan. Pakistani Balochistan marked the westernmost extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation. Centuries before the arrival of Islam in the 7th Century, parts of Pakistani Balochistan was ruled by the Paratarajas, an Indo-Scythian dynasty. At certain times, the Kushans also held political sway on parts of Pakistani Balochistan.
A theory of the origin of the Baloch people, the largest ethnic group in the region, is that they are of Median descent, and are a Kurdish group that has absorbed Dravidian genes and cultural traits, primarily fromBrahui people. With time, Baloch tribes linguistically absorbed all the local people in Makran, southern Sistan and the Brahui country, becoming rival in size to the other Iranian-speaking groups in the region.
In 654, Abdulrehman ibn Samrah, governor of Sistan and the newly emerged Rashidun caliphate at the expense of Sassanid Persia and the Byzantine Empire, sent an Islamic army to crush a revolt in Zaranj, which is now in southern Afghanistan. After conquering Zaranj, a column of the army pushed north, conquering Kabul and Ghazni, in the Hindu Kush mountain range, while another column moved through Quetta District in north-western Balochistan and conquered the area up to the ancient cities of Dawar and Qandabil (Bolan). By 654, the whole of what is now Balochistan was controlled by the Rashidun Caliphate, except for the well-defended mountain town of QaiQan which is now Kalat. However, this town was later conquered during the reign of Caliph Ali. Abdulrehman ibn Samrah made Zaranj his provincial capital and remained governor of these conquered areas from 654 to 656, until Uthman was murdered.
During the Caliphate of Ali, revolt broke out in southern Balochistan’s Makran region. Due to civil war in the Rashidun Caliphate, Ali was unable to deal with these areas until 660, when he sent a large force, under the command of Haris ibn Marah Abdi, towards Makran and Sindh. Haris ibn Marah Abdi arrived in Makran and conquered it by force, and then moved northward to north-eastern Balochistan and reconqueredQandabil (Bolan). Finally, he moved south and conquered Kalat after a fierce battle. In 663, during the reign of Umayyad Caliph Muawiyah I, Muslims lost control of north-eastern Balochistan and Kalat when Haris ibn Marah and large part of his army died in battle against a revolt in Kalat. Muslim forces later regained control of the area during the Umayyad reign. It also remained a part of the Abbasid Caliphate.
In the 15th century, Mir Chakar Khan Rind became the first king of Afghan and Pakistani Balochistan, after which the region was dominated by the Timurids, who controlled most of Central and Western Asia. The Mughal Empire also controlled some parts of the area. When Nadir Shah won the allegiance of the rulers of eastern Balochistan, he ceded Kalhora, one of the Sindh territories of Sibi-Kachi to the Khan of Kalat. Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the Afghan Empire, also won the allegiance of that area’s rulers. Most of the area would eventually revert to local Baloch control, after Afghan rule.
During the period of the British Raj, there were four Princely States in Balochistan: Makran, Kharan, Las Bela and Kalat. In 1876, Sir Robert Sandeman negotiated the Treaty of Kalat, which brought the Khan’s territories, including Kharan, Makran, and Las Bela, under British suzerainty. After the Second Afghan War was ended by the Treaty of Gandamak in May 1879, the Afghan Emir ceded the districts of Quetta, Pishin, Harnai, Sibi andThal Chotiali to the British. In 1883, the British took control of the Bolan Pass, south-east of Quetta, from the Khan of Kalat. In 1887, some areas of Balochistan were declared British territory. In 1893, Sir Mortimer Durandnegotiated an agreement with the Amir of Afghanistan, Abdur Rahman Khan, to fix the Durand Line running from Chitral to Balochistan as the boundary between the Emirate of Afghanistan and British-controlled areas. Two devastating earthquakes occurred in Balochistan during British colonial rule: the 1935 Balochistan earthquake, which devastated Quetta, and the 1945 Balochistan earthquake with its epicentre in the Makran region.
In August 1947 the Chief Commissioner’s Province of Balochistan immediately became part of Pakistan, followed by the princely states of Makran, Kharan, Las Bela, and the Khanate of Kalat, who decided to accede to Pakistan in March 1948. The Khan of Kalat agreed to join Pakistan under the condition that defence, currency, foreign relations, and finance would be controlled by the federal government, but that the province would remain otherwise autonomous. The four princely states together formed the Balochistan States Union in October 1952. The enclave of Gwadar was excluded from this as it was still part of the Sultanate of Oman.
In October 1955, formation of one unit resulted in the Balochistan States Union and the Chief Commissioner’s Province of Balochistan being merged with all the remaining provinces and princely states in other parts of Pakistan to form the province of West Pakistan. The enclave of Gwadar was purchased from Oman in October 1958 and was also merged with West Pakistan. The province was officially dissolved in 1970 and the former Balochistan States Union, former Chief Commissioner’s Province of Balochistan were combined to form the new province of Balochistan. The government of Pakistan later decided to incorporate Gwadar in to Balochistan in 1977, thus expanding Balochistan province to its current form.Insurgencies by Baloch nationalists took place in 1948, 1958–59, 1962–63 and 1973-77 — with a new and reportedly stronger ongoing insurgency by autonomy-seeking Baloch groups beginning in 2003. The Pakistan government is considering bringing Indian involvement to the United Nations.
At a press conference on 8 June 2015 in Quetta, Home Minister Sarfraz Bugti accused India’s prime minister of openly supporting terrorism. Bugti implicated India’s Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) of being responsible for recent attacks at military bases in Smangli and Khalid, and for subverting the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) agreement.
Balochistan is situated in the southwest of Pakistan and covers an area of 347,190 square kilometres (134,050 sq mi). It is Pakistan’s largest province by area, constituting 44% of Pakistan’s total land mass. The province is bordered by Afghanistan to the north and north-west, Iran to the south-west, Punjab and Sindh, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and theFederally Administered Tribal Areas to the north-east. To the south lies the Arabian Sea. Balochistan is located on the south-eastern part of the Iranian plateau. It borders the geopolitical regions of the Middle East and Southwest Asia, Central Asia and South Asia. Balochistan lies at the mouth of the Strait of Hormuz and provides the shortest route from seaports to Central Asia. Its geographical location has placed the otherwise desolate region in the scope of competing global interests for all of recorded history.
The capital city Quetta is located in a densely populated portion of the Sulaiman Mountains in the north-east of the province. It is situated in a river valley near the Bolan Pass, which has been used as the route of choice from the coast to Central Asia, entering through Afghanistan’s Kandahar region. The British and other historic empires have crossed the region to invade Afghanistan by this route.
Balochistan is rich in exhaustible and renewable resources; it is the second major supplier of natural gas in Pakistan. The province’s renewable and human resource potential has not been systematically measured or exploited due to pressures from within and without Pakistan. Local inhabitants have chosen to live in towns and have relied on sustainable water sources for thousands of years.
The climate of the upper highlands is characterised by very cold winters and hot summers. In the lower highlands, winters vary from extremely cold in northern districts Ziarat, Quetta, Kalat, Muslim Baagh and Khanozai to milder conditions closer to the Makran coast. Winters are mild on the plains, with temperature never falling below freezing point. Summers are hot and dry, especially in the arid zones of Chagai and Kharan districts. The plains are also very hot in summer, with temperatures reaching 50 °C (122 °F).The record highest temperature, 53 °C (127 °F), was recorded in Sibi on 26 May 2010, exceeding the previous record, 52 °C (126 °F). Other hot areas includes, Turbat, and Dalbandin. The desert climate is characterised by hot and very arid conditions. Occasionally strong windstorms make these areas very inhospitable.
The economy of Balochistan is largely based upon the production of natural gas, coal and other minerals. Other important economic sectors include fisheries, mining, manufacturing industries, trade and other services being rendered by public and private sector organisations. Tourism remains limited but has increased due to the exotic appeal of the province. Limited farming in the east and fishing along the Arabian Sea coastline provide income and sustenance for the local population. Due to the tribal lifestyle of many Baloch and Brahui people, animal husbandry and trading bazaars found throughout the province are important.
Balochistan has been called a “neglected province where a majority of population lacks amenities”. Since the mid-1970s the province’s share of Pakistan’s GDP has dropped from 4.9 to 3.7%, and as of 2007 it had the highest poverty rate and infant and maternal mortality rate, and the lowest literacy rate in the country, factors some allege have contributed to the insurgency. However, in 7th NFC awards Punjab province and Fedral contributed to increase Baluchistan share more than its entitled population based share.
Though the province remains largely underdeveloped, several major development projects, including the construction of a new deep sea port at the strategically important town of Gwadar, are in progress in Balochistan. The port is projected to be the hub of an energy and trade corridor to and from China and the Central Asian republics. The Mirani Dam on the Dasht River, 50 kilometres (31 mi) west of Turbat in the Makran Division, is being built to provide water to expand agricultural land use by 35,000 km2(14,000 sq mi) where it would otherwise be unsustainable. In the south east is an oil refinery owned by Byco International Incorporated (BII), which is capable of processing 120,000 barrels of oil per day. A power station is located adjacent to the refinery.Several cement plants and a marble factory are also located there. One of the world’s largest ship breaking yards is located on the coast.
Natural resource extraction
Balochistan’s share of Pakistan’s national income has historically ranged between 3.7% to 4.9%. Since 1972, Balochistan’s gross income has grown in size by 2.7 times. Outside Quetta, the resource extraction infrastructure of the province is gradually developing but still lags far behind other parts of Pakistan.
There is Chinese involvement in the nearby Saindak gold and copper mining project where deposits exist in the Chagai District in Reko Diq area. The main license is held jointly by the Government of Balochistan (25%), the rest by foreign interests Antofagasta Minerals (37.5%) and Barrick Gold (37.5%). These deposits are comparable in size to those located in Sarcheshmeh, Iran and Escondida, Chile, which are the second and the third largest known deposits of copper in the world. The multinational mining companies BHP Billiton and Tethyan entered into a joint venture with the Balochistan government to extract these deposits. The potential annual copper production has been estimated to be 900,000 to 2.2 million tons. The deposits seem to be largely ofporphyry rock nature. The agreements for royalty rights and ownership of these resources were reached during a period of unprecedented natural disasters, economic, social, political, and cultural unrest in Pakistan. The negotiations were widely considered to be insufficiently transparent.
Government and politics
In common with the other provinces of Pakistan, Balochistan has a parliamentary form of government. The ceremonial head of the province is the Governor, who is appointed by the President of Pakistan on the advice of the provincial Chief Minister. The Chief Minister, the province’s chief executive, is normally the leader of the largest political party or alliance of parties in the provincial assembly.
The unicameral Provincial Assembly of Balochistan comprises 65 seats of which 4% are reserved for non-Muslims and 16% exclusively for women. The judicial branch of government is carried out by the Balochistan High Court, which is based in Quetta and headed by a Chief Justice.
Besides dominant Pakistan-wide political parties (such as the Pakistan Muslim League (N) and the Pakistan Peoples Party), Balochistan nationalist parties (such as the National Party and the Balochistan National Party) have been prominent in the province.
For administrative purposes, the province is subdivided into 32 districts:
Balochistan’s population density is very low due to the mountainous terrain and scarcity of water. In March 2012, preliminary census figures showed that the population of Balochistan had reached 13,162,222, not including the districts of Khuzdar, Kech and Panjgur, compared to 5,501,164 in 1998, representing approximately 5% of Pakistan’s total population. Official estimates of Balochistan’s population grew from approximately 7.45 million in 2003 to 7.8 million in 2005.
According to the Ethnologue, households whose primary language is Makrani constitutes 13%, Rukhshani 10%, and Sulemani 7% of the population. Pashto is also spoken by around 39% of the population and 13% of households speak Brahui. The remaining 18% of the population speaks various languages, including Lasi, Urdu, Punjabi, Hazargi, Sindhi, Saraiki, Dehvari, Dari, Tajik, Hindko, Uzbik, and Hindki.
Rukhshani is spoken in the sparsely populated west, Sulemani is spoken by the tribal east mainly by Murree Bughtis, and Makrani is mostly spoken in south coastal areas. In addition, the coastal region of Makran is home to communities such as the Siddi and Med, who speak distinct ethnic dialects. Brahui is spoken in the central Baluchistan and Pashto is mainly spoken in the north and north-west including Quetta. In Barkhan and Musakhel districts bordering Punjab, Saraiki (Khetrani and Jafri dialects) is the local language. There are also a number of speakers of Hazaragi, Urdu, and Punjabi in the capital Quetta and other areas of Baluchistan. Sindhi is spoken in the south-east. The Jamot tribes of Sibi Naseerabad and Kachhi region mainly speak Jadgali (Sindhi). The Kalat and Mastung areas speak Brahui. In the Lasbela District, the majority of the population speaks Lasi.
The 2005 census concerning Afghans in Pakistan showed that a total of 769,268 Afghan refugees were temporarily staying in Balochistan. However, this number is likely to be reduced in 2013 after the repatriation of the refugees to Afghanistan. As of 2015, there are only 327,778 registered Afghan refugees according to the UNHCR.
|Provincial bird||MacQueen’s bustard|
|Provincial tree||Date Palm|
|Provincial flower||Perovskia atriplicifolia|
Princess of Hope along the N10
Quetta District is an integral part of the Baloch Country Which was given on Lease to the The British Government of India By Ameer E Balochistan Mir Khudadad Khan Ahmedzai Baloch in 1883 AD
Baloch of India
Baloch (Gujrat) India
The earliest Baloch settlers of Gujarat India came with Fateh Khan Baloch, who was given the jagir of Radhanpur and Sami by Sultan Ahmad Shah II of Gujarat. Another Fateh Khan Baloch was given the jagir of Khadia in Junagadh by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. In the 18th century, the Gohil Rajput rulers of Bhavnagar invited a number of Baloch to serve as their bodyguards. They were granted the jagir in Sehor.
The Baloch are distributed in Rajkot, Junagadh, Khadia, Keshod, Veraval, Mangrol, and Bhavnagar. Important Baloch villages include Budhana & pingali in Bhavnagar District, Kundhada village in Junagadh District and Baspa and Kerwada in Radhanpur. They tend to live in their own villages, or have distinct quarters in the towns they reside in. The community is split inti six clans, or ataks as they are known in Gujarati. Their main clans are the Gabol, Lashari, Birri, Gopang, Sukhe, Hooth and Korai. A small number of Baloch have immigrated to Pakistan, and are now found in Karachi. The community speak standard Gujarati, while those in Kutch speak Sindhi. Most Baloch also have knowledge of Urdu.
The Baloch are strictly endogamous, although there are some cases of inter-marriage with the Pathans and Muslim Rajput communities such as the Malik, Miyana and Molesalam. They prefer marrying close kins, and practice both parallel cousin and cross counsin marriages.
The Baloch are now mainly marginal farmers, with many also employed as agricultural labourers. Land reform has led to the breakup of the larger jagirs, and many jagirdars have emigrated to cities like Ahmadabad and Mumbai. Their villages now have electricity, and many now use electric pumps. Many Baloch are also employed as truck drivers, with a small number owning their trucks. Their general economic circumstances are poor. Like other Gujarati Muslims, they have a caste association, the Baloch Jamat. This acts as a welfare association, as well as an instrument of social control. Most Baluch are Sunni, but members of the Sukhe clan are Shia
Baloch (Uttar Pradesh) India
Baloch of the Doab India
Now the most important Baloch colonies in Uttar Pradesh are those of Amirnagar, Garhi Abdullah Khan, Garhi Pukhta, Jasoi and Baghra in Muzaffarnagar District. They settled in the district during the rule of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, and rose to prominence as the Mughal Empire disintegrated. Another two prominent Baloch families were those of Tajpuri and Jhajhar, in Bulandshahr District. The Tajpuri Baloch are descended from Nahar Khan, who is said to have from Seistan during the rule of Alauddin Khilji. Nahar Khan was latter appointed governor of Deccan, and his son Sardar Khan founded a settlement in Ganaura Shaikh, and the family rose to some prominence during the rule of the Aurangzeb. While the Jhajhar family claim descent from Syed Mohammad Khan, a Leghari Baluch, who was granted a jagir by the Mughal Emperor Humayun. They played a key role in the post-Mughal history of the Doab region, but began to decline with the rise of British power in the 19th century.
Tufail Ahmed Khan Baloch (Tajpuri) was the first who migrated from India to Pakistan and help many others immigrants from India to settle in Pakistan. Presently many Tajpuri Baloch are settled in Karachi, Hyderabad, Lahore and different parts of Pakistan.
The Baloch of Haryana all emigrated to Pakistan at the time of partition. The Baloch now speak Urdu and the Khari Boli dialect, and are found in the Doab region of Uttar Pradesh
Baloch of Rohilkhand India
The Baluch of Rohilkhand accompanied Hafiz Rahmat Khan Bareach, a Rohilla conqueror. They have now been assimilated into the Rohilla community, and lost their distinct Baloch identity. The Rohilkhand Baloch belong mainly to the Magsi, Leghari and Mazari tribes. These Baloch are found mainly in the districts of Bareilly, Badaun, Bijnor, Shahjahanpur and Moradabad.
There is also a single settlement of Baloch in Lucknow District, at Baluchgarhi. These Baloch are descendants of mercenaries brought by the Nawabs of Awadh
The Baloch of North India are now altogether separated from the Baloch tribes of Balochistan and tribal divisions are no longer important. They are found in the districts of Meerut, Muzaffarnagar, Bulandshar and Aligarh. Their customs are similar to those of the neighbouring Muslim communities such as the Jhojha and Ranghar. The Baluch reside in mixed caste villages, occupying their own quarters, and are largely small and medium sized farmers, with a small number being landless agricultural labourers. Their most important settlements are in several villages in and around the town of Baghra in Muzaffarnagar District. A second cluster of Baloch villages exist in Bulandshahr District, where there are several villages near the towns of Jhajhar and Chanderu. In addition, the town of Faridnagar in Ghaziabad District is home to an important colony of Baloch. They are strictly endogamous, marrying within close kin, and like other North Indian Muslim communities. The Baluch practice both cross cousin and parallel cousin marriages. They speak both Urdu and Khari Boli, the local dialect in the Doab region of Uttar Pradesh.
The Baluch are almost entirely Sunni Muslims, and like other Doab Muslim communities have been influenced by the Deobandi reformist movement. They have no formal caste association, although most villages with Baloch do have traditional caste associations, known as panchayats. These panchayats exercise social control, and are deal with intra community disputes.[citation needed
The Baloch of Balochgarhi in Lucknow District considers themselves simply as a sub-group of the Pathan, with whom they intermarry. They speak the Awadhi dialect, as well as standard Urdu. The community are mainly small and medium sized farmers, although historically many were employed by the state police. They have no connection with the Baloch of the Doab. There are also small number of Baloch colonies in Sitapur, Kheri and Hardoi. Many of the Awadh Baloch are Shia
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