2nd OCTOBER 1952 COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME STARTED FOCUSING AGRICULTURE

Community Development Programme Share on emailShare on facebookShare on twitterShare on printShare on google June 10, 2011No comments Community Development Programme: 1952 Post Independence, the first major development programme launched in India was Community Development Programme in 1952. Core philosophy was overall development of rural areas and people’s participation. This programme was formulated to provide an administrative framework through which the government might reach to the district, tehsil / taluka and village level. All the districts of the country were divided into “Development Blocks” and a “Block Development Officer (BDO)” was made in charge of each block. Below the BDO were appointed the workers called Village Level Workers (VLW) who were responsible to keep in touch with 10-12 villages. So, a nationwide structure was started to be created. Thousands of BDOs and VLW’s were trained for the job of carrying out array of government programmes and make it possible to reach the government to villages. Top authority was “Community Development Organization” and a Community Development Research Center was created with best academic brains of the country at that time.   In the first five year plan, the emphasis was on agriculture. The food production started growing and by the end of first five year plan, the food import decreased substantially. However, the bad monsoon in the first two three years of second five year plan the food production again tumbled down and the production was now around pre-1954 levels.   The community development programme later became overburden and a need to sharply focus the agriculture was felt. So the first programme which sharply focused agriculture was launched in 1960-61 and this programme was called “ Intensive Agriculture Development program (IADP)”
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Community Development Programmes in India: Objectives, Features and Other Details

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The objectives of the Community Development Programmes may be summed up under the following heads:

1. Help in Planning:

The Community Development Projects are aimed at helping the villages in planning and developmental activities. Through these projects, schemes for improving the agricultural production are undertaken.

2. Involving Villages in National Reconstruction:

An important objective of Community Development Project is to make village people self-dependent and encourage them to take part in the activities of national reconstruction.

This is done through the following methods:

i. Changing the traditional and conservative outlook of the village people.

ii. Organizing youth and women bodies to take part in the developmental and welfare activities.

iii. Making arrangements for recreation of the village youth and women.

1. Providing Educational Facilities in Villages:

Through these projects, an attempt is being made to provide educational facilities for the village people.

This is done by the following methods:

i. Arranging centres of social education.

ii. Arranging recreational programmes.

iii. Training village people in the activities of planning and development.

2. Improving the Standard of Living of Villagers:

The main objective of Community Development Programmes is to improve the standard of liv­ing of the village people. They have been provided with various employment facilities and opportunities to set up industries and the training to improve their agricultural production. Cooperative societies and other such bod­ies have been set up for them to undertake various activities of development planning.

3. Political Training:

Through the Community Development Projects, village people are also given training in administrative activities. Through the work­ing of Community Development Projects, people are trained in the practi­cal working of democracy. The village people are trained in the area of civic affairs.

4. Other Objectives of Community Development:

The above mentioned objec­tives are the general objectives of the community development. There are also specific objectives intended basically at ‘all-round Development of the Rural Society’.

The specific objectives of the plan may be categorized under the fol­lowing heads:

i. Agriculture and improvement of agricultural production

ii. Setting up of cooperative societies in each village

iii. Animal husbandry

iv. Public health

v. Rural education

vi. Improving the means of communication and transport in rural areas

vii. Setting up village level small-scale cottage industries

viii. Organizing and strengthening the village panchayats

Underlying Philosophy and Principles of Community:

Development Projects:

Community Development Project is a new experiment in the development and planning activities of the world. Such projects have been specially launched only in Asian Countries. It is an experiment intended at fulfilling the various need of the village society and also making it self-dependent. It is a part of the Indian Constitution aimed at estab­lishing a socialist society in this country.

The Community Development Programmes are based on the following principles:

1. Drawing programmes for fulfilling various needs of the community.

2. Involving the people in planning and developmental activities.

3. Bringing about material as well as psychological betterment.

4. Teaching rural people the political set up in democracy.

5. Creating the local leadership.

6. Drawing up of national policy for the development of the country.

7. Setting up of cooperative societies for carrying developmental works.

8. Development based on socialism.

These Community Development Projects are based on the decentralization of econ­omy, administration and political power. They are the means of training the people in the art of ‘self-administration’. These programmes employ all the resources for the devel­opment of nation. They focus their attention at training people to become self-dependent and self-reliant. These programmes are basically aimed at changing the face of rural society.

Features of Community Development Programme:

This project in India is an integrated programme for rural development, which has the following features:

1. The basic characteristic feature of community development is self-dependence. It means that through this programme people are trained to become self-reliant economically.

2. To bring about a change in the administration is another important feature of community development.

3. The most important feature of this programme is the involvement of the people in the system.

4. All-round development of blocks is another important feature of community development.

Community Development Projects and their Implementation:

As already stated, these programmes are socio-economic programmes undertaken for the reconstruction of rural society, implementation is aimed at the involvement and par­ticipation of rural people, which is carried out by the institutions of local self-government and local administration.

Institutions for Implementation of Programmes:

The programmes of community development are carried out by the following three basic institutions at the village level:

1. Village Panchayat

2. Cooperative Societies

3. Village School

In rural development and programmes of community development, the village school and the village teacher play a very vital role. The village teacher is the centre of activity and encourages people and involves them in the programme of village develop­ment and reconstruction.

Community Centres:

In villages, there are various community centres that look after the various aspects of life of village people.

These community centres perform the following functions:

1. Establishing reading rooms and libraries.

2. Encouraging village people to improve their standard of living.

3. Taking up various cultural programmes.

4. Establishing organizations for the welfare of boys and girls.

5. Establishing schools for the village children.

6. Undertaking the programmes of national integration and also observing national festivals to strengthen national unity.

Budgetary Planning:

As part of community project, it has been planned to set up blocks covering 100 villages with about 80,000 people. On the basis of this, all the states have been divided into blocks, regions and zones.

The budget is allotted to carry out the following stages of the programme:

1. Pre-extension Block Development

2. First stage of Block Development

3. Second stage of Block Development

Aspects of Community Development:

1. Community Development as a Process:

Community development is in tact a process and a method to bring about proper development and upliftment of the village society. This is a process to bring socio-economic changes at the social and psychological level.

2. Community Development as a Method:

Community development is not only a process of social change but also a method for achieving this objective. In a democratic country like India bringing about a change in the society can be possible only with the cooperation of the people.

3. Community Development as a Programme:

Community development is also a programme on the basis of which the process of change is carried out. Without proper programme, neither the method nor the process shall have any utility. This programme implies development of the society through stringent methods and process.

4. Community Development as a Movement:

Community development is a movement, which is undertaken for eradication of illiteracy, unemployment and poverty and improving village life.

Programmes of Community Development:

The Community Development Project has a large number of programmes intended to bring about the changes in the rural community.

The programmes included in the pro­ject are as follows:

1. Agriculture:

Development of agriculture sector is the first aim of community development. The facilities include providing improved means of implements to the agriculturists, providing them with the improved seeds and better irrigation facilities and so on. The real task is to bring about the improvement in agricul­ture so that the condition of the rural society may improve.

2. Development of Communication:

Rural conditions improve only when the means of communication and transport in rural areas are developed. The pro­ject aims at construction of new roads and also improving transport and com­munication facilities.

3. Development of Education:

The Constitution of India envisages compulsory pri­mary education. It stresses on adult education. Under Community Development Project, centres of social education, night schools and other institutions for imparting education have been planned. Apart from these libraries, reading rooms and centres of social education have to be set up. These institutions aim at expansion of education and extension of educational facilities.

4. Development of Health Services:

To improve the standards of rural life, one has to change facilities regarding health need improvement. It is done by pro­viding facilities of medical and health services, maternity and child welfare ser­vices, etc. Provision of health services is one of the developmental measures taken up by Community Development Project.

5. Employment Facilities:

Rural societies are characterized by seasonal employ­ment, as agriculture is the only means of livelihood. It also suffers from un­employment and underemployment. Community Development Programme aims at setting up small-scale cottage industries in rural areas, through which employment could be provided for rural people.

6. Housing Facilities:

Rural areas in India suffer from lack of proper houses. The houses in rural areas do not have the basic facilities and are unhygienic. The development programmes include providing better housing facilities.

7. Social Welfare Activities:

Social welfare activities such as providing better facilities for recreation, women’s education have been taken up in Community Development Project.


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