- 1846: Kashmir is ceded: Sikh Empire ceded Kashmir to the East India Company via Treaty of Lahore. The British gave it to Maharaja Gulab Singh Dogra of Jammu, after the Treaty of Amritsar was signed.
- 1857: The War of independence, The Subcontinent fractured into hundreds of states
- 1931: Kashmir’s first organized protest: The people of Kashmir hold their first organized protest against Maharajah Hari Singh’s cruelty. The 1931 protest led to the “Quit Kashmir” campaign against the Maharajah in 1946, and eventually to the Azad Kashmir movement which gained momentum a year later.
- March 23, 1940: Pakistan Resolution passed: The Pakistan Resolution is passed at Iqbal Park, Lahore. The resolution demands the establishment of an independent state comprising all regions in which Muslims are the majority. The letter “K” in the word “Pakistan” represents Kashmir.
- July 26, 1946: Azad Kashmir comes into being: The Muslim Conference adopts the Azad Kashmir Resolution on July 26, 1946 calling for the end of autocratic rule in the region. The resolution also claims for Kashmiris the right to elect their own constituent assembly.
- June 3, 1947: British accept Pakistan plan:
The British government announces its intention to accept the demand by Muslims for an independent Pakistani state. The new nation would comprise areas where Muslims are in the majority. All political parties, including the Muslim League (representing Muslims) and the Congress Party (representing all including nationalist Muslims), accept the plan.
- August 14/15, 1947: Independence of the British India into India and Pakistan.
- August 1947: Kashmiri resistance encounters Maharajah’s troops: The first armed encounter between the Maharajah’s troops and insurgent forces occurred in August 1947. At this time, Britain was liquidating its empire in the subcontinent.
- October 25, 1947: Maharajah flees to Jammu:
Faced with a popular revolt against his rule, the Maharajah flees to Jammu on October 25, 1947. Once in Jammu, the Maharajah receives a commitment of military assistance from the Indian government in exchange for his signing the “Instrument of Accession” document.
Lord Mountbatten conditionally accepts the document on behalf of the British Crown and proceeds to outline the conditions for official acceptance in a letter dated October 27, 1947.
“In consistence with their policy that in the case of any (native) state where the issue of accession has been subject of dispute, the question of accession should be decided in accordance with the wishes of the people of the state, it is my government’s wish that as soon as law and order have been restored in Kashmir and her soil cleared of the invaders the question of state’s accession should be settled by a reference to the people.”
- October 1947: Pashtuns from Pakistan’s Afghania storm Kashmir, Maharaja of Kashmir asks India for help.This was considered by India as a deliberate ploy by Pakistan to Increase their support in Kashmir.
- November 1, 1947: Kashmir’s accession to India is not “bona fide”: Jinnah:
Governor General of Pakistan, Mohammad Ali Jinnah meets Governor General of India, Mountbatten. Jinnah tells Mountbatten that Kashmir’s accession to India “was not a bona fide one since it rested on fraud and violence.”
- November 2, 1947: Kashmiris have a right to determine future: Nehru:
Indian Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, in a speech aired on All-India Radio, reaffirmed the Indian Government’s commitment to the right of the Kashmiri people to determine their own future through a plebiscite:
“We have declared that the fate of Kashmir is ultimately to be decided by the people. That pledge we have given, and the Maharajah has supported it, not only to the people of Jammu and Kashmir, but also to the world. We will not and cannot back out of it. We are prepared when peace and law have been established to have a referendum held under international auspices like the United Nations. We want it to be a fair and just reference to the people and we shall accept their verdict.”
The Government of India accepted the “Instrument of accession” conditionally, promising the people of the state and the world at large that “accession” would be final only after the wishes of the people of the state were ascertained upon return of normalcy in the state.
- January 1948: India brings Kashmir issue to UN Security Council:
India brought the issue to the United Nations Security Council in January 1948. The rebel forces had been joined by volunteers from Pakistan and India charged Pakistan with having sent “armed raiders” into the state. It demanded that Pakistan be declared an aggressor in Kashmir. Furthermore, India demanded that Pakistan stop aiding Militants, and allowing the transit of tribesmen into the state.
After acceptance of these demands, coupled with the assurance that all “raiders” were withdrawn, India would allow a plebiscite to be held under impartial auspices to decide Kashmir’s future status.
In reply, Pakistan charged India with maneuvering the Maharajah’s accession through “fraud and violence” and colluding with a “discredited” ruler in the repression of his people. Pakistan’s counter complaint was also coupled with the proposal of a plebiscite under the supervision and control of the United Nations to settle the dispute.
- April 21, 1948: UN resolution envisages cease-fire, withdrawals:
The Security Council discussed the question from January until April 1948. It came to the conclusion that it would be impossible to determine responsibility for the fighting and futile to blame either side. Since both parties desired that the question of accession should be decided through an impartial plebiscite, the council developed proposals based on the common ground between them.
These were embodied in the resolution of April 21, 1948, envisaging a cease-fire, the withdrawal of all outside forces from the state, and a plebiscite under the control of an administrator who would be nominated by the Secretary General. For negotiating the details of the plan, the council constituted a five-member commission known as “United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan,” (UNCIP) to implement the resolution.
After the cease-fire, positions on both sides of the cease-fire line were manned by regular military personnel of the respective countries. As withdrawal of outside forces has not taken place since, the resolution of 1948 is yet to be realized.
- 1947/1948: Indo-Pakistani War of 1947
- January 24, 1957: UN Security Council reaffirms 1948 resolution:
The Security Council, reaffirming its previous resolution, further declared that any action taken by the Constituent Assembly formed in Kashmir “would not constitute disposition of the state in accordance with the above principles.”
1965 Indo-Pakistani war
- March 1965: India claims Kashmir:
The Indian Parliament passes a bill declaring Kashmir a province of India.
- August 1965: Pakistan sends infiltrators:
India accuses Pakistan of sending infiltrators to Kashmir. Indian forces cross the cease-fire line in Kashmir.
- September 6, 1965: India retaliates against Pakistan:
India attacks Pakistan across the international border and tries to capture Pakistan’s second largest city, Lahore.
- 1965: Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
- September 23, 1965: calls for an end to hostilities:
The United Nations Security Council arranges a cease-fire Line.
- January 10, 1966: Tashkent agreement signed:
The Soviet Union arranges talks between Pakistan and India. The Tashkent Agreement is signed through the mediating efforts of the Soviet Prime Minister Alexi Kosygin. The agreement reaffirms that the dispute should be settled by peaceful means. The armies are to withdraw to their original positions.
1971 Indo-Pakistani war
- November 1971: attack against East Pakistan:
Indian Army liberates East Pakistan.
- December 6, 1971: Indo-Pakistani War of 1971; Liberation of East Bangla
- December 16, 1971-Bangladesh is established:
Pakistan surrenders East Pakistan to India. India declares East Pakistan as “Bangladesh.”
- July 2, 1972: Republic of India and Pakistan agree to respect the cease-fire as Line of Control, Simla Agreement signed: The Simla Agreement between Pakistan and India is signed. Both agree to make efforts toward establishing durable peace by seeking a solution to existing problems, including “a final settlement of Jammu and Kashmir.”. The following principles were agreed in the Simla Agreement (i) A mutual commitment to the peaceful resolution of all issues through direct bilateral approaches. (ii) To build the foundations of a cooperative relationship with special focus on people to people contacts. (iii) To uphold the inviolability of the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir, which is a most important CBM between India and Pakistan, and a key to durable peace.
- 1978: Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act, 1978 : Human rights organizations have also asked Indian government to repeal the Public Safety Act, since “a detainee may be held in administrative detention for a maximum of two years without a court order.”
- April 13, 1984: The Indian Army takes Siachen Glacier region of Kashmir
Disputed 1987 State elections
- 1987:Since after 1987 disputed rigged Sate elections in Indian Administered Kashmir that an Indian Congress party leader called Khem Lata Wukhloo stated from bbc news page”I remember there was massive rigging in the 1987 elections. It shook ordinary people’s faith in the… democratic process’ Furthermore it had resulted in some of the ‘states legislative assembly’ ‘formed militant wings’ later on after the election forming and creating the catalsyt for the insurgency in 1989 and the Peacful Protest movement in 1989 .
Rise of Peaceful Protest Movement
- 1989: The peacful protest movement that stated in 1989 has been a ‘purely indigenous, purely Kashmiri’ by Washington post from Mirwaiz Farooq a Kashmiri party leader) ‘Ghandi style’ (stated by Wall Street Journal) peaceful protest movement in Indian Administered Kashmir since 1989 continues today. The movement was created for the same reason as the insurgency ;the disputed rigged elections in 1987 ,Kashmir dispute and grievances with the Indian government specifically the Indian Military that has committed human rights violations .This reinforced by the United Nations that has said India has committed Human rights violations .(the movement continues today)
Rise of militancy 1989
- 1988: Operation Tupac launched by Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence to support militants in Kashmir with aim of disintegrating India .However Pakistan says stated by bbc and contends that they only give ‘moral’ and ‘diplomatic’ support to the ‘movement’ of what bbc called ‘armed resistance’ in Kashmir .Timeline of the conflict
- 1989: Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir:In 1989, a widespread armed insurgency started in Kashmir, Since after 1987 disputed rigged Sate elections resulted in some of the ‘states legislative assembly’ ‘formed militant wings’ later on after the election forming and creating the catalyst for the insurgency which continues to this day furthermore ‘in part’ fueled by Afghan Mujahadeen in 1989 .Pakistan has been accused of supporting the insurgency .Timeline of the conflict
- December 8, 1989: Kidnapping of Rubaiya Sayeed
- February 5, 1990: Solidarity day is observed throughout Pakistan and Azad Kashmir for the alleged massacres by Indian armed forces as Indian state Terrorism
- January 19, 1990: Kashmir brought under Indian control:
The Indian government brings Kashmir under its direct control. The state legislature is suspended, the government is removed and the former Director General of the Indian Secret Service, Research and Analysis Wing (RAW), Mr. Jagmohan is appointed governor.
- January 20, 1990: Gawakadal massacre:
There are large-scale demonstrations and thirty people are killed by Indian security forces. A curfew is imposed in most cities.
- February 25, 1990: support from civil servants:
Government employees join demonstrations.
- February 27, 1990: United Nations not allowed in Kashmir:
India refuses to allow any United Nations official to visit Kashmir.
- Feberuary 28, 1990: Zakoora And Tengpora Massacre :
In order to halt the people, who were to submit a memorandum to United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP), Indian army opened fire at Tengpora bypass and Zakoora crossing in Srinagar, killing 26 and 21 demonstrators, respectively.
- March 2, 1990: Kashmiris shot during Srinagar march:
Forty people are killed when police open fire at a march of more than one million Kashmiris through the streets of Srinagar. Police are ordered to shoot at sight.
- April 14, 1990: military reinforcements in Kashmir:
Indian authorities send military reinforcements to Kashmir.
- July 1990: Jammu and Kashmir Disputed Areas Act passed:
Under this act, India’s security forces personnel have extraordinary powers over anyone who is suspected of disturbing the peace or harboring militants or arms.
- July 5, 1990 – THE ARMED FORCES (JAMMU AND KASHMIR) SPECIAL POWERS ACT, 1990 The “Armed Forces Special Powers Act”, enables certain special wide powers to be conferred upon members of the armed forces in the disturbed areas in the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Any officer in the armed forces may, in a disturbed area, after giving such due warning as he may consider necessary, fire upon or otherwise use force, even to the causing of death, against any person who is acting in contravention of any law or order; prohibit the assembly of five or more persons; prohibit carrying of weapons; arrest, without warrant, any persons who has committed a cognizable offence .The Human rights organizations such as Amnesty International and the Human Rights Watch (HRW) have condemned human rights abuses in Kashmir by Indians such as “extra-judicial executions”, “disappearances”, and torture; and have asked India to repeal the “Armed Forces Special Powers Act”
- February 23, 1991: Kunan Poshpora incident
- June 11, 1991: Syed Mansoor-Chota Bazaar massacre: The CRPF troops opened indiscriminate fire, having been frightened by the sound of a tire burst, leaving 32 civilians killed in the densely populated area of Chotabazar, Srinagar. The killed included, shopkeepers, passers-by, old persons, women and children.
- November 1992: Amnesty International not allowed into Kashmir:
Amnesty International is barred from going to the Kashmir valley.
- January 6, 1993: Sopore massacre
- April 10, 1993: Burning of Lal Chowk
- January 1–3, 1994: another failure over Kashmir:
Pakistan and India’s foreign secretaries fail to narrow differences on Kashmir. Pakistan rules out more talks unless India ends alleged human rights violations in Kashmir.
- January 20, 1995: India doesn’t want third-party involvement in Kashmir:
India excludes the possibility of third-party involvement in the resolution of the Kashmir dispute. But it says it is prepared to hear from Pakistan directly about how much “elbow room” is necessary to commence talks between the two countries.
- May 9, 1995: fire rages through Chrar Sharif:
Hundreds of homes are destroyed on Eid when a fire rages through Chrar Sharif. The Terrorists were under siege by the Indian army for two months in this town.
- May 12, 1995: anti-India protest in the wake of Chrar Sharif fire:
Anti-India protests overwhelm the Kashmir Valley in the wake of the destruction of the 650-year-old mausoleum of Sheikh Nooruddin Wali (R.A.) and a mosque next to it. India accuses Pakistan of being behind the destruction of the shrine and issues a strong warning against interference in its internal affairs.
- May 18, 1995: APHC rejects offer for talks on Kashmir with India:
The APHC rejects an offer for talks on Kashmir by New Delhi. The organization says it will not enter into any dialogue with New Delhi unless India admits Kashmir is a disputed territory.
- July 4, 1995: 1995 kidnapping of western tourists in Jammu and Kashmir
- July 20, 1995: journalists’ kidnapping in Kashmir a sign of media clampdown:
The New York-based Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) says the kidnapping of four journalists in Kashmir is only one current example of a complete clampdown on any independent journalism in the area. In its report, On the Razor’s Edge, the CPJ also notes the Indian government harasses and intimidates reporters.
- November 11, 1995: India launches anti-Pakistan propaganda campaign:
Upset about the media and human rights reports against its campaign of suppression and repression in Indian administered Jammu and Kashmir, India launches a multi-million dollar propaganda campaign against Pakistan. Pakistan is accused of aiding and abetting terrorism in Kashmir using money from the drug trade.
- December 23, 1995: APHC seeks intervention of UN, OIC and others:
The APHC seeks the intervention of the United Nations, Organization of the Islamic Conference, Amnesty International and other worldwide human rights bodies to help stop India’s destruction of Indian administered Kashmir.
- February 16, 1996: APHC calls for tripartite talks:
Kashmiri groups ask India and Pakistan to begin tripartite talks to end the six-year-old rebellion against New Delhi. The groups say most Muslims in the area support the proposal.
- May 5, 1996: Indian Prime Minister makes his first visit to Kashmir:
Indian Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao makes his first visit to Kashmir. He says upcoming general elections in the region could not be foiled by what he described as Pakistani moves toward destabilization.
- May 13, 1996: government employees boycott Indian elections:
Over 1.5 million government workers assigned to election duty by Indian authorities strike for 18 days to boycott the electoral process at the call of Jammu and Kashmir Government Employees Confederation.
- June 8, 1996: APHC rejects greater autonomy:
The APHC rejects the Indian government’s offer of greater autonomy for Indian administered Kashmir. The organization says the problem cannot be resolved by remaining in India.
- August 2, 1996: Gowda tries to sweeten the deal for Kashmir:
HD Deve Gowda, Prime Minister of India, reveals a package of economic benefits for Kashmir just before state elections scheduled for the following month. Gowda announces outstanding loans of up to Rs.50, 000 will be waived, Kashmir will receive special assistance of Rs.3.52 billion for developing infrastructure in the state.
- September 14, 1996: APHC leadership arrested:
Prior to elections for the state assembly, Indian troops arrest the APHC’s entire leadership.
- September 16, 1996: Elections held in Kashmir:
Peaceful assembly elections in Kashmir.
- March 3, 1997: Mujahedeen reject carving up Kashmir:
Kashmiri Mujahedeen reject the carving up of Kashmir between India and Pakistan. “The proposal for any kind of division of the state can never be accepted by the people of Jammu and Kashmir, and we will always oppose it,” says Shabir Ahmed Shah, a Kashmiri leader.
- March 28, 1997: India and Pakistan begin negotiations:
Pakistan’s Foreign Secretary, Shamshad Ahmad, and India’s Foreign Secretary, Salman Haider, meet at the negotiating table for the first time in three years. The issue of Kashmir is high on the agenda.
- March 31, 1997: talks look hopeful:
Pakistan and India end four days of talks aimed at reducing tension and agree to meet again in Islamabad.
- April 22, 1997: change in government elicits cautious reaction in Kashmir:
The people in Indian administered Jammu & Kashmir react cautiously over the change of government in India.
- May 12, 1997: India and Pakistan meet again:
Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and Indian Prime Minister Inder Kumar Gujral agree to establish joint working groups to resolve all outstanding issues between the two countries since 1947.
- May 15, 1997: Indian Government has been criticized by Amnesty and a party member from Jammu and kashmir Amnesty saying Amnesty International has documented violations in Jammu and Kashmir including torture,rape, deaths in custody, extrajudicial executions and “disappearances” over a number of years.Investigation and prosecution in cases of human rights violations are rare, and armed forces have been given a free rein in the region with little civilian control over their operations and furthermore “Access to redress for victims of human rights violations, a right guaranteed under international law, is being denied to victims in Jammu and Kashmir,” .The party member from Jammu and kashmir said “It’s high time that the Government of India put an end to impunity for the perpetrators of human rights violations,” the organization said. Furthemore “The arrest and detention yesterday evening of Yasin Malik and others can only serve to undermine the government’s stated commitment to human rights.” For example In an incident on 22 April, several armed forces personnel forcibly entered the house of a 32-year-old woman in the village of Wawoosa in the Rangreth district of Jammu and Kashmir. They reportedly molested her 12-year-old daughter and raped her other three daughters, aged 14, 16 and 18.When another woman attempted to prevent soldiers from attacking her two daughters, she was beaten. Soldiers reportedly told her 17-year-old daughter to remove her clothes so that they could check whether she was hiding a gun. They molested her before leaving the house.
- June 22, 1997: India and Pakistan reach an agreement:
Pakistan and India agree to establish a mechanism for enduring dialogue on issues between the two countries.
- June 23, 1997: Kashmir is one of eight major issues:
Pakistan and India pinpoint eight issues to be discussed in future talks including the issue of Jammu and Kashmir. However, Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif says the country maintains its stand on Kashmir.
- June 25, 1997: India says Kashmir is not a “disputed territory”:
At the conclusion of a second round of talks in Islamabad, India rejects Pakistan’s assertion that Jammu and Kashmir is a “disputed territory.”
Indian Foreign Minister, Salman Haider, says India will not discuss the status of Indian-held Kashmir with Pakistan. He says if anything is to be discussed it will be “Pakistan-held” Kashmir and northern areas illegally annexed by Pakistan.
- July 27, 1997: Gujral does a turnaround:
In a turnaround from the previous day’s statement, Indian Prime Minister, Inder Kumar Gujral, says that Kashmiri Terrorists would have to surrender their arms before peace talks with the government could begin.
- August 10, 1997: increase in reports of harassment of Kashmiri women:
Reports are coming through of Kashmiri women and girls being arrested, tortured and raped. The chairperson of the Indian Commission for Women, Dr. Mohini Giri, said Kashmiri women were being treated in the most inhumane way all over Kashmir.
- October 12, 1997: rioting after Jami Mosque desecration:
Angry anti-India demonstrations are sparked by the desecration of the historic Jamia Mosque in Srinagar by Indian troops. They besieged the mosque, entered it wearing their boots and carried out an extensive search for three hours.
- January 25, 1998: Wandhama massacre 23 Kashmiri Pandit villagers killed by militants.
- April 2, 1998: Pakistan accused of fomenting war in Kashmir:
India’s new government accuses Pakistan of helping Kashmiri separatists and warns it is ready to respond to the “proxy war” in Kashmir.
- April 10, 1998: Pakistan and India should “go the extra mile”:
United States Ambassador to the United Nations, Bill Richardson, urges Pakistan and India to “go the extra mile” and hold a dialogue on Kashmir and other issues in order to stop the nuclear missile race in the area.
- April 17, 1998: 1998 Prankote massacre 26 Hindu villagers killed in village of Prankote by Islamic terrorists.
- April 22, 1998: appointment of new Kashmir governor:
The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) government appoints Girsh Saxena as Governor of Jammu and Kashmir. The appointment is resented by human rights activists and intellectuals who demanded a senior politician close to Kashmir be sent as governor.
- May 11 and 13, 1998: India conducts five nuclear tests.
- May 28 and 30, 1998: Pakistan responds by conducting its six nuclear tests (five on May 28 and one on May 30).
- May 24, 1998: major offensive against Mujahedeen:
Kashmir’s Chief Minister, Farooq Abdullah, says India will launch a major offensive against “foreign” fighters in the northern state of Kashmir and that the Indian government is ready to “flush” the terrorists out of the state.
- May 26, 1998: Indian troops and Mujahedeen clash:
In Indian administered Kashmir, Mujahedeen clash with Indian troops in the Keri, Rajauri area.
- May 30, 1998: India responds to nuclear testing:
In response to Pakistan’s nuclear testing, India warns Islamabad about Kashmir. Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee says while India was ready to talk to Pakistan it should harbor no ambitions towards capturing Kashmir. Pakistan says it is prepared to have a non-aggression pact with India on the basis of just settlement of the Kashmir issue.
- June 6, 1998: Pakistan proposes Kashmir resolution and a halt to nuclear arms buildup:
Pakistani Prime Minister, Nawaz Sharif, proposes talks between Islamabad and New Delhi to stop the South Asian arms race and urges the international community to help resolve the issue of Kashmir.
- June 19, 1998: 1998 Champanari massacre 25 Hindu villagers killed by militants in Doda district of Kashmir.
- August 1, 1998: “massive” joint operations against Mujahedeen:
India’s Home Minister, L.K. Advani, says more forces are being sent to Indian administered Kashmir for “massive” joint operations. He said this is because the Kashmiri Mujahedeen have intensified their efforts in the valley for the last many months.
- August 19, 1998: Vajpayee wants new talks:
India’s Prime Minister, Atal Behari Vajpayee, offers talks with Pakistan. However, he says the dialogue has to be comprehensive and not just focused on Kashmir.
- August 26, 1998: India bans Britannica CD-ROM:
India bans importation of Encyclopædia Britannica on CD-ROM because it shows Kashmir as a disputed territory.
- August 29, 1998: Nelson Mandela’s involvement in Kashmir issue urged:
The Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) calls on South African President, Nelson Mandela, to persuade Pakistani and Indian teams attending a Non-Aligned Movement meeting to solve the Kashmir issue in a peaceful, democratic and permanent manner.
- September 2, 1998: NAM calls for resolution of Kashmir dispute:
For the first time in history, the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) calls for a peaceful resolution of the dispute over Jammu and Kashmir. Nelson Mandela, who chaired the 12th NAM summit, says everyone should hope the issue of Jammu and Kashmir is solved through peaceful negotiations and everyone should be willing to help resolve the matter.
Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee says “third parties” should stay out of the Kashmir dispute.
- September 23, 1998: Pakistan and India agree to resume Kashmir talks:
Pakistan and India agree to resume stalled dialogue on Kashmir and other security issues.
- October 18, 1998: no agreement between India and Pakistan:
The first diplomatic talks between the two countries since nuclear testing was conducted by the two in May, end in Islamabad. There is no agreement on how to ease tensions in the area.
1999 Kargil War
Armed conflict occurs between India and Pakistan due to the infiltration of Pakistani soldiers and Kashmiri militants into positions on the Indian side of the Line of Control. After three weeks of “intense skirmishes” between India and Pakistan, India launches air strikes against Mujahedeen supported by Pakistan Army in Kargil. India claims up to 680 “Afghan militants,” backed by Pakistan, have invaded high ridges and another 400 are waiting to cross over to the Indian side of the Line of Control. Pakistan calls the air strikes “very, very serious” and puts its troops on high alert. India and Pakistan agree to hold talks over Kashmir in the first sign that the two sides might be trying to defuse escalating tensions.
- June 1999: Kashmir peace hope flounders:
As India promises to continue ground and air strikes against infiltrators, a senior Indian minister warns there is little point in peace talks with Pakistan. But after some time, talks on Kashmir are confirmed. Pakistan and India fix a date for their first significant attempt to defuse the tension over Kashmir.
However, India continues its assault on suspected infiltrators holed up in the Himalayas with fresh air strikes, ahead of talks with Pakistan. India and Pakistan end their talks on the fierce fighting in Kashmir without agreement on how to halt the conflict. India presses ahead with its military offensive a day after US President Clinton asks Pakistan to persuade them to pull out.
- July 1999: Clinton urges India-Pakistan talks:
India announces it has taken the key Tiger Hill peak following an all-out assault. Mujahedeen fighters are reported to be leaving the mountains of Indian administered Kashmir as India emerges victorious in the two-month conflict. As fighting in the territory dies down, Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif appeals for a permanent settlement of the Kashmir dispute.
- February 2000: US President makes statement:
President Bill Clinton says he would be happy to mediate between India and Pakistan over the Kashmir conflict—if asked.
- March 2000: killings in mosque:
Indian troops in kashmir kill three separatists in a mosque near the border town of Handwara. In the same month, 36 Sikhs are massacred in the village of Chattisinghpora by the Pakistani terrorists.
- August 1, 2000: 2000 Amarnath pilgrimage massacre
- August 2000: more negotiations:
The Indian government and Mujahedeen commanders prepare for a round of peace talks.
- November 2000: call for Muslim nations to cut ties with India:
A leading separatist, Syed Salahuddin, calls on Muslim nations to cut diplomatic and economic ties with India. At the same time, Kashmiri leaders call on India to recognize the territory as disputed and to hold talks with Pakistan and Kashmiri leaders.
A new round of talks are slated to begin between India and Pakistan on the issue of Kashmir.
- July 14–16, 2001: General Pervez Musharraf and Atal Behari Vajpayee meet for peace talks, Agra Summit:
Indian Prime Minister, Atal Behari Vajpayee, and Pakistani President, Pervez Musharraf, meet in Agra, India for a summit on relations between the two nations..
- October 2001: 2001 attack on Jammu and Kashmir legislative assembly kills 38 people.
- December 2001: Attack on Indian parliament in New Delhi initiates the 2001-2002 India-Pakistan standoff
- May 14, 2002: Kaluchak massacre
- July 13, 2002: 2002 Qasimnagar massacre of Kashmiri Pandits
- March 30, 2002: 2002 fidayeen attacks on Raghunath temple
- March 23, 2003: 2003 Nadigram killings of Kashmiri Hindus
- May 2, 2003: India and Pakistan restore diplomatic ties.
- July 11, 2003: Delhi-Lahore bus service resumes
- September 24, 2004: Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and President Musharraf meet in New York during UN General Assembly.
- January 8, 2005: 11 killed in sectarian violence in Gilgit in Pakistan administered Kashmir
- February 15, 2006: United States Congress passes a resolution condemning ethnic cleansing of Kashmiri Pandits by Islamic militants in Kashmir.
- April 30, 2006: 2006 Doda massacre of Hindus.
- July, 2006 : Second round of Indo-Pakistani peace talks.
- Feb, 2007 : Samjhauta Express firebombed, 67 killed
- June, 2007 : Two Indian soldiers have been paraded naked for allegedly attempting to rape a girl in Indian-administered Kashmir, police say.
- Nov 2007: Human rights organizations such as Amnesty International and the Human Rights Watch (HRW) have condemned human rights abuses in Kashmir by Indians such as “extra-judicial executions”, “disappearances”, and torture; and have asked India to repeal the “Armed Forces Special Powers Act”
- June 2008: Amarnath land transfer controversy. Huge anti-India protests were held against the transfer of land to SASB (shrine board), which was an outside state organization, as it was a direct violation of article 370 of the Indian constitution.
- August 13, 2008: After the Hindu-Muslim clashes in the town of Kishtwar, Doda district, India gave shoot on sight orders in Kishtwar. Kishtwar witnessed violent clashes between Hindus and Muslims on 12 August that left at least 28 people dead, while at least two people were killed as a result of alleged police firing. Amnesty International asked India to rescind the shoot on sight order.
- August 25, 2008: All anti Indian ,separatist and Islamist organisation leaders arrested due to their uncontrolled anti-Indian activities , to restore the law and order in the Indian-administered Kashmir.
- August 27, 2008: The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights is concerned about the recent violent protests in Indian-administered Kashmir that have reportedly led to civilian casualties as well as restrictions to the right to freedom of assembly and expression.
- October 5, 2008: Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari says India has never been a threat to Pakistan, and that militants in Indian-administered Kashmir are terrorists
- December 24, 2008: 2008 Kashmir Elections: Assembly elections held in Jammu and Kashmir. With a record turnout of 62 per cent – the highest in 20 years
- December 30, 2008: Omar Abdullah of National Conference chosen the new Chief minister of Jammu and Kashmir, takes oath on January 5, 2009, becoming the 11th and the youngest Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir.
- Feberuary 21, 2009 : Bomai Killing :
Army kills two devotees in an indiscriminate firing incident by 22nd Battalion of Rashtriya Rilfes in Bomai, Sopore. Which results in a massive valley wide protests.
- March 6, 2009: Nowhatta Killing :
Army vehicle killed one youth and crushed another at Nawhatta during a protest against detention of separatist leaders. The killing triggered violent protests across the city. Authorities clamped curfew continuously for four days.
- March 18, 2009: Khaigam killing
Barely a few hours after the union home minister, P Chidambaram, assured action against troopers found guilty for Bomai killings,181 bn of paramilitary CRPF troopers shot dead a carpenter, Ghulam Mohiudin Malik son of Muhammad Akbar Malik, at Khaigam Pakherpora in south Kashmir’s Pulwama district.
UN Commissioner for Human Rights Navnetham Pillay asked India to repeal the Armed Forces Special Powers Act which breaches contemporary international human rights standards. She also asked the government of India to address the cases of alleged disappearances in Kashmir.
6 militants from Pakistan-based militant group Lashkar-e-Taiba and 8 India army soldiers were killed in five day long gun battle in Shamsabari.
- April 20, 2009: Senior separatist leader Sajjad Lone took part in the Indian democratic process by contesting in the Indian 2009 Lok Sabha elections from the Kupwara-Baramullah constituency. However, he lost the elections coming in third behind the winner Sharifuddin Shariq of the National Conference and PDP candidate Mohammad Dilawar Mir.
- May 18, 2009:Extrajudicial killing of a civilian, Manzoor Ahmad Beigh, in the custody of Special Operations Group of Indian police triggered massive anti-India protests near his residence at Alochi Bagh.
- May 26, 2009:Arif Ayub Wani of Ganderpora killed by Indian police during a protest in downtown against the custodial killing of Manzoor Ahmad Beigh.
- May 31, 2009:Shopian rape and murder case:Protests over rape and murder of two young women allegedly by Indian Armed Forces. Pro-freedom leaders arrested and police and paramilitary forces resorted to firing at protesters in several places, including Shopian, Baramulla and Srinagar killing one person and injuring hundreds. Four Indian police officials were suspended Monday over the cover up of a rape and murder case that has sent shockwaves through the disputed Muslim-majority Kashmir region, officials said..The high court in Indian-administered Kashmir has appealed to the people of Shopian district to end their strike over the alleged murders of two women. Chief Justice Barin Ghosh assured the family of the two women that “we will go to the bottom of this matter and bring the culprits to justice”.
- June 2, 2009: 17-year-old Nigeen Awan was shot and killed at her residence by Militants.
- June 16, 2009: 45-year-old Rashma Jan died when terrorists barged into her house at Sopore on June 16 and fired indiscriminately.
- June 29, 2009: An Indian soldier was killed due to firing from Pakistan’s side.
- June 30, 2009: Two protesters were killed and 10 others injured, some of them critically, when police opened fire on protestors demonstrating against the alleged misbehaviour of policeman Mohammad Amin with a woman in this North Kashmir town.
- July 1, 2009: Three militants belonging to Lashker-e-Toiba (LeT) militant outfit were killed in Kashmir during gun fighting with Indian army. LeT group is accused for carrying out the last year’s Mumbai attack that killed over 170 people and injured over 300.
- July 6, 2009: Thirteen persons, including four policemen, were injured in a grenade attack by militants on a police party and in clashes with security personnel.
- July 8, 2009: Pakistani president Asif Zardari admitted Pakistan created terrorist groups to help achieve its foreign policy goals. Mr. Zardari confirmed that many of the Islamic militants now waging war against his government were once “strategic assets”. He said and confirmed the military was now targeting those it had previously used as proxies in attacks on India.
- July 21, 2009: Two police officer were killed in Indian administered Kashmir attack. Sub-Inspector Sethi Ram was killed on the spot and Constable Shafiq Ahmad of the Special Operations Group (SOG) died later and three others were injured when suspected militants fired a rifle grenade at a police camp in Imam Sahib village, a South Kashmir village
- July 24, 2009: America’s top military officer Mike Mullen has said the ISI is fomenting “chaotic activity” in Kashmir and Afghanistan. Mullen said the ISI has been supporting militant groups in Kashmir and advised Islamabad to restrain the ISI.
- August 18, 2009 : Indian Government stated there had been 3429 youth missing since 1990 – till date. However local and international rights groups have suggested over 8,000 people have disappeared in the region
- August 20, 2009: Human Rights workers discovered several unmarked graves containing about 1,500 unidentified bodies in Indian Administered Kashmir. Last year in a report titled, “Facts Under Ground” APDP had reported finding the unmarked graves of about 1,000 people near Uri, an area near the de facto frontier that divides Indian- and Pakistani-controlled Kashmir and referred to as Line of Control. Human rights workers have complained for years that innocent people have disappeared, been killed by government forces in staged gunbattles, and suspected rebels have been arrested and never heard from again in Indian administered Kashmir
- October 2, 2009: The world’s largest Muslim grouping, the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), has named a special envoy to solve the Kashmir conflict between Pakistan and India, the Hindustan Times reported Friday, October 2. “We believe the OIC appointing a special envoy on Kashmir is a significant development,” Mirwaiz Umar Farooq, chairman of Kashmir’s All Party Hurriyat Conference (APHC), said. Abdullah bin Abdul Rahman, a Saudi official, was named the pan-Muslim organization’s envoy to the disputed Himalayan region during a meeting of the OIC Contact Group at the UN headquarters on Monday. Farooq said the move would help solve the conflict in line with aspirations of the Kashmiri people.”The OIC should press India to resolve the Kashmir dispute in accordance with the wishes and aspirations of the Kashmiri people,” he said
- October 3, 2009: The Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on Thursday firmly told the Organisation of Islamic Countries (OIC) to keep its hands off Kashmir, adding that it had no locus standi to comment on the region that was essentially an internal matter of India. The meeting of the 56-nation grouping of Islamic countries in New York earlier this week issued a statement, saying it supported people of Jammu and Kashmir in realisation of their legitimate right of self determination in accordance with relevant UN resolutions and aspirations of Kashmiri people.The Indian Government has already given a strong rejoinder, condemning and rejecting the OIC statement. A government spokesman said: “It is regrettable that the OIC has commented on India’s internal affairs. We condemn and reject this.” “Inherent in OIC’s statements and actions on the issue of Jammu and Kashmir is a complete inability to understand India’s position,” he added.
- October 14, 2009: Indian home minister P Chidambaram states he is willing to talk to every section in J&K. The stage seems set to restart the stalled talks with separatists. Union home minister P Chidambaram has said, “We will have a dialogue with every section of the people of Jammu & Kashmir. We mean dialogue process will start and it will be carried to its logical conclusion.”
- October 14, 2009: India objects to Chinese activities in Pakistani administered Kashmir
- October 20, 2009: A leader of a Party from Jammu and Kashmir accuses Indian’Govt changing Kashmir demography’
- November 24, 2009: A delegation from the European Union issued a statement that Kashmir is an integral part of India. Lord Olof Lindgren, the head of the European Union delegation, stated that it is the opinion of the European Union that Kashmir is an integral part of India. However, he also said they were concerned about the human rights violation in Indian administered Kashmir. “Well, there are a lot of human rights issue that we are looking into. I cannot go into the details of those but those are of concern to the European Union and we discussed them with the Indian government and we have met the Human Rights Commissioner in the state. So we will follow these things with interest like we follow the situation in all parts of India,”. The EU delegation also said Kashmir needs a solution through peaceful talks between India, Pakistan and concerned people in Kashmir
- November 24, 2009: A party from Jammu and Kashmir has said it was committed to a meaningful dialogue. Unless and until India takes steps as suggested by us no dialogue is possible
- December 2, 2009 : A Kashmir based group, International People’s Tribunal on Human Rights and Justice, said that it had found 2600 bodies in unmarked graves during a three year survey. While the group did not who the buried were, it alleged that some could be innocent people killed by security force, and called for an investigation
- December 4, 2009 : Unidentified men shot and critically injured Fazal Haque Qureshi, the senior most separatist leader and an important executive member of the moderate Hurriyat Conference in Srinagar. According to senior police officials, the attempt on the life of Qureshi was to “stall” the imminent dialogue process between New Delhi and the Hurriyat Conference However, New Delhi and the separatist conglomerate (Hurriyat) reaffirmed its commitment to the dialogue process. The Al-Nasireen, a little-known guerrilla group believed to be an operational combine of the Hizbul Mujahideen and Lashkar-e-Taiba terror groups, has owned responsibility for the attack
- December 9, 2009 : Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari asked for United States to mediate between India and Pakistan on the Kashmir issue in his Op-ed in the New York Times
- December 11, 2009 : United States ruled out any mediatory role in Kashmir stating that it should be resolved ultimately between Pakistan and India with the active involvement of the people of Kashmir
- December 18, 2009: India withdraws 30,000 troops from Kashmir in one of the largest troop withdrawals in response to dramatic improvement in security situationIndia is believed to have 500,000 to 700,000 army and paramilitary soldiers in the portion of Kashmir it controls. The army won’t confirm its deployment levels
- December 22, 2009 : a ‘Row over World Bank’s Kashmir clause’ happened between Indian Government and the World Bank .The contested clause where the Indian state of Jammu and kashmir government loan will ‘not be treated as a certificate that the disputed territory’ was an integral part of India’ (the disputed territory is Jammu and Kashmir). Indian finance minister Pranab Mukherjee has assured that the Indian government will oppose the contested disclaimer clause
- January 6, 2010: At least three soldiers were killed and 11 injured in a suicide bombing outside an army barracks in Pakistani-administered Kashmir. Pakistani-administered-Kashmir has been largely free of violence over the years and has been said the incident was a ‘rare attack’, although recently attacks have been on the rise. Eight Shia Muslims were killed in a bombing last month. In November, three would-be suicide bombers blew themselves up in the regional capital, Muzaffarabad, as they were chased by police. The three men did not appear to be Kashmiris, police said. In June, a suicide bomber killed two soldiers and injured three others in Muzaffarabad. Wednesday’s bombing is the first outside Muzaffarabad and comes a day after Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari visited the area. It has raised fears the Taliban may be trying to expand their area of operations
- January 7, 2010: A drawn-out gunfight between two militants and Indian security forces ended Thursday afternoon after the insurgents were gunned down inside a hotel in Srinagar’s Lal Chowk area. One police officer was killed in the attack and one bystander succumbed to his injuries. The security forces also rescued 10 people from a neighboring hotel in what is a crowded business district in the city. Officials said that one of the gunmen belonged to the banned Pakistan-based militant group Lashkar-e-Taiba. A pro-Pakistan militant group, Jamiat-ul-Mujahedin, claimed it was behind the assault. However, Indian police pointed the finger at the Pakistan-based group Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT). A terrorist killed during the Lal Chowk encounter had a pre-paid mobile connection used for communicating with his handlers in Pakistan. The terrorist, identified as Saifullah Qari, believed to be in his mid-twenties, had kept the mobile connection with him for a long period, and had meant to use it only during “operations”, official sources said. He was one of the two militants gunned down by security forces, to bring to end a 22-hour siege in the heart of Srinagar. This militant incident in Srinagar is almost two years after a consistent decline in violence. ‘Several rebel groups have been waging a separatist struggle in Indian Kashmir since 1989, wanting the Muslim-majority region to either merge with Pakistan or become independent. But violence began declining after India and Pakistan began a peace process in 2004. The region is now much calmer than it was at the height of the separatist insurgency in the 1990s, even though the peace process is stalled.’