Jammu & Kashmir National Conference

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Jammu and Kashmir National Conference
Chairperson Farooq Abdullah(1981–2002 & 2009-till present)
Founded June 11, 1939; 76 years ago
Headquarters Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Ideology Moderate separatism
Re-unification ofKashmir
ECI Status State Party[1]
Seats in Lok Sabha
0 / 545

Seats in Rajya Sabha
0 / 245

Seats in the Legislative Assembly
15 / 87

Election symbol
Indian Election Symbol Plough.png
Politics of India
Political parties

The Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (JKN) is a State political party in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. Led at the time of Indian independence in 1947 by Sheikh Abdullah, it dominated electoral politics in the state for many decades. It has been led subsequently by the Sheikh’s son Farooq Abdullah (1981–2002) and his son Omar Abdullah (2002–2009). Farooq Abdullah was again made the President of the party in 2009.


The pre-independence period[edit]

In October 1932, Sheikh Abdullah founded the All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference. On 11 June 1939 it was renamed as the All Jammu and Kashmir National Conference. The National Conference was affiliated to the All India States Peoples Conference. Sheikh Abdullah was elected its president in 1947. In 1946, the National Conference launched an intensive agitation against the state government. It was directed against the Maharaja. The slogan of the agitation was “Quit Kashmir“.

The post-independence period[edit]

In the elections held in September 1951, National Conference won all 75 seats of the Constituent assembly of Jammu and Kashmir. Sheikh Abdullah remained the prime minister until his dismissal in August 1953 on the grounds of conspiracy against the state of India. Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad became the Prime minister of the state and Sheikh Abdullah was arrested on 9 August 1953.

In 1965 the National Conference merged with the Indian National Congress (INC) and became the Jammu and Kashmir branch of the Indian National Congress. Sheikh Abdullah was again arrested in 1965 until 1968 for conspiracy against the state. Sheikh Abdullah’s splinter Plebiscite Front faction later appropriated the name of the original party when Abdullah was allowed to return to power in February 1975 after striking a deal with the central government. In 1977, National Conference led by him won the state assembly elections, and Sheikh Abdullah became the chief minister. His son Farooq Abdullah succeeded him as the Chief Minister on his death on 8 September 1982. In June 1983 elections, the JKNC led by Farooq Abdullah again won a comfortable majority. In July 1984 Farooq’s brother-in-law Ghulam Mohammad Shah split the party. Acting on the behest of the central government, the Governor dismissed Farooq as a Chief Minister and installed GhulamMohammad Shah in his place. His government was dismissed in March 1986 and President’s rule was imposed. In 1987 contested state assembly elections, the JKNC, which formed an alliance with the INC, was claimed to have won the majority and Farooq Abdullah again became the Chief Minister and under Abdullah’s watch, an insurgency against the State government and India began. Abdullah was dismissed again in 1990 by the Union Government and President’s rule was imposed in the state.[2] In 1991 the state elections were cancelled due to a revolt by the people.

1996 onwards[edit]

In Jammu and Kashmir state assembly elections in 1996, the JKNC led by Abdullah was awarded the election yet again winning 57 seats out of a total 87. This election like its predecessors has been deemed to be rigged and Abdullah stepped down in 2000. His son, Omar Abdullah then took up the reins of power in the state. But in 2002 state assembly elections, the JKNC won only 28 seats, with the Jammu and Kashmir People’s Democratic Party (PDP) emerging in the Kashmir Valley as a contender for power. In the December 2008 state assembly elections, no single party was able to get the majority. The JKNC led by Farooq’s son Omar Abdullah emerged as a single largest party, winning 28 seats. After the elections, on 30 December 2008 the JKNC formed an alliance with the INC which had won 17 seats.[3][4] Omar Abdullah became the Chief Minister of this coalition government on 5 January 2009.[5]

JKNC and INC contested Indian general election, 2009 in alliance. INC won all the two seats of Jammu region but lost Ladakh seat to NC rebel who contested as an independent candidate. NC won all the three seats of the Kashmir Valley in 2009.[3]

During this period the JKNC has experienced increasing controversies over the Accession of Kashmir to India. Protests against the government in 2010 when approximately 100 protesters (one as young as 11) were killed as the result of live ammunition being fired by state paramilitary forces.[6][7] A torture scandal was exposed by the Wikileaks, revelations which were subsequently aired on Channel 4.[8]

In the Indian general election, 2014, the NC contested the election in an alliance with Indian National Congress but did not win a single seat. Out of 6 seats in the state, PDP and Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) won three each.[3][9]

During Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly election, 2014, INC broke its alliance with JKNC thus JKNC contested on all seats in the assembly.[3] It won only 15 seats, 13 less than the previous election. PDP won 28 seats and became the largest party in the assembly followed by BJP winning 25 seats.[10] Omar Abdullah resigned as a chief minister on 24 December 2014.[11]

View about Kashmiri Pandits Exodus[edit]

Pitching for establishment of Truth and Reconciliation Commission to probe the reasons behind the exodus of pandits from valley, national conference on Saturday said the former Governor Jagmohan and not the militancy was the major reason for pandit exodus.

Talking to KNS, additional general secretary NC Dr Sheikh Mustafa Kamal said there are some vested interests in migrant pandits which are trying to exploit the sentiments of their community. “These elements have always tried to paint Kashmir with the communal brush and to defame Muslims of Kashmir. At present also, the issue is being staged so that Musims of Kashmir who are otherwise known in the world for upholding the principles of communal harmony, could be defamed and labelled as communal. The issue is being created to embarrass the Muslims of Kashmir,” Kamal said.

He maintained further that a major chunk of the migrant pandits do not want to return to valley as they are settled well in various parts of the world. “Have you asked Pandits that do they really want to return to Kashmir?. The issue is being given hype with a sole objective to defame Muslims.”

Kamal, who is NC patron Dr Farooq’s younger brother said when Farooq Abdullah was the chief minister of Jammu and Kashmir after 1996, an amount of 300 crore was sanctioned by the GoI for the rehabilitation of migrant pandits.

“8 lakh had to be given to each family to rebuilt the house and 20 lakh for establishing a business unit but none turned up. The funds got lapsed as pandits were not interested in returning to valley,” Kamal recalled.

He maintained that it has now become an established fact that the former JK governor Jagmohan Malhotra played a vital role in exodus of pandits from valley. “Mani Shankar Aiyar has in open revealed that Jagmohan was the man behind the exodus of pandits from valley. It was all engineered and we want to have a truth and reconciliation commission so that the faces who were behind such a tyranny could be unmasked,” said Kamal.[12]


Kashmir: Politics of Symbols

The political struggle of Kashmiris has produced its own representative symbols, and these deserve to be safeguarded, and celebrated
Srinagar | Posted : Sep 10 2015 1:11AM | Updated: Sep 9 2015 10:25PM

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Kashmir: Politics of Symbols
File Photo
Section 144 of the Constitution of Jammu & Kashmir says in the plainest of words: “The Flag of the State shall be rectangular in shape and red in colour with three rectangular white vertical strips of equal width next to the staff and white plough in the middle with handle facing the strips.

The ratio of  the  length  of  the  flag to its width shall be 3 : 2”. All the holders of office under this Constitution are required (Ss. 40, 64, 97 and the Fifth Schedule) to “bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of the State as by law established”. This holds good for Ministers, legislators and Judges of the State’s High Court. S. 31 prescribes separately the text of the oath of the office of the Governor. He “will to the best of my ability to preserve, protect and defend the Constitution”.

The three vertical lines represent each of the three provinces of J&K – Kashmir, Jammu & Ladakh. The plough represents the peasant on whom the State’s economy rests. Flags represent the people’s emotions. It was only on 10 July 2015 that South Carolina lowered the Confederate battle flag from outside its State House where it had flown for decades. It required the massacre of black churchgoers at Charleston’s Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church, on 17 June, to move the legislators to decide to remove the flag; and then after days of emotional debate in the State Legislature.  It was a symbol of the Deep South and its history of resistance to the Union and racial hate. A kindergarten teacher accurately summed up popular reaction “I thought about all of the African-Americans that lost their lives because of the flag, because of hatred that this flag symbolises.”

South Carolina led the South by its Ordinance of Secession, 1860 which “repealed” the Constitution of the United States of America and declared “that the union now subsisting between South Carolina and other States under the name of the United States of America is hereby dissolved”. The Constitution of the Confederate of America, adopted on 11 March 1861, declared explicitly (Art. 1; S. 9(4)) that no “law denying or impairing the right of property in negro slaves shall be passed”. The Confederate Flag stood for slavery and racial hate.

The history behind the adoption of Kashmir’s flag reveals in a flash that it was meant to signify secularism, communal harmony, the unity of Jammu & Kashmir, emancipation of the oppressed peasant and end to the slavery of the people under the Dogras. They had acquired the State from the East India Company, uniquely, by what Gandhi aptly called a “sale-deed”, the Treaty of Amritsar 1846. In doing so, the Dogra ruler of Poonch, Gulab Singh betrayed his masters, the Sikh Darbar in Lahore, as Capt Amrinder Singh, former Chief Minister of Punjab, has so ably documented in his book The Last Sunset: The Rise and Fall of the Lahore Darbar  (Roli Books; 2009).

On 17 July 2015, Prime Minister Narendra Modi went to Jammu to participate in the birth centenary celebration of Girdhari Lal Dogra whom all hailed as a veteran “Congressman”. Along with him, G. M. Sadiq and Mir Qasim merged the State’s National Conference with the Indian Natinal Congress as Sadiq got a host of the provisions of the Indian Constitution extended to J&K. It bears recalling now that Kashmir’s flag was praised by G. L. Dogra with great fervour. He was a devoted follower of Sheikh Abdullah and a member of the Working Committee of the National Conference. More, he was also a member of its Special Committee set up in May 1953 to consider proposals for a settlement fo the Kashmir dispute. The other members, besides the Sheikh himself, were Maulana Masoodi, Mirza Afzal Beg Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad, G. M. Sadiq, Sardar Budh Singh, Shamlal Saraf and Girdhari Lal Dogra. Unknown to the Sheikh, barring Beg and Masoodi; the rest had been won over by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru who then cited disunity in the Sheikh’s Cabinet to have him sacked by Karan Singh as Prime Minister on 8 August 1953 and imprisoned for 11 long years.

Despite all upheavals Dogra’s commitment to the flag continued. It was left to Syama Prasad Mookerjee to challenge it as he looked for emotive issues after he set up the Jan Sangh.

If Kashmir’s flag still arouses deep emotions it is because its origin lay in the bloodshed on 13 July 1931. Some one picked up the blood-drenched shirt of a martyr, tied it to a pole and declared amidst acclamation – this will be our flag.

Pandit Prem Nath Bazaz has given a gripping account of that fateful day’s events in his magisterial work Struggle for Freedom in Kashmir (Chapter 7). One Abdul Qadir was arrested, put up and for delivering an inflammatory speech. A large restive crowd gathered outside the prison walls. Arrests were followed by the time-honoured Kashmiri response, since the days of Akbar, stone pelting. The police opened fire killing 21 persons. The dead bodies were carried in a process on charpoys. “They carried a banner of blood in front”. Kashmiris had acquired a flag of their own, rejecting the Dogra flag and Dogra rule with it.

“Historically and politically the 13th July 1931, is the most important day in the annals of contemporary Kashmir. From this day the struggle for independence and freedom in the most modern sense started openly.” Initially communal, “it was in essence the struggle of a victimised and enslaved people against the despotic rule. It was sooner or later bound to proceed on the right track.” It did fairly soon.

“The incident of the 13th July shook the whole State including the Administration. … Immediately after the jail incident, most of the chosen representatives of the State Muslims including Abdullah and Abbas were arrested and kept in Hari Parbat Fort. It proved no remedy to restore law and order in the State. As a matter of fact it added fuel to the fire of wild excitement which held the people in its grip. As it was, 13th July saw the beginning of the gigantic force behind the mass movement.”

On 11 June 1939 the J&K Muslim Conference, led by Sheikh Abdullah, converted itself into the National Conference at his instance. Beg recalled in the J&K Constituent Assembly on 7 June 1952, “in 1939… we adopted our own flag”. The flag of the National Conference was first treated as the “National Flag” once a proper constitutional set up was organised, the flag was adapted with modifications and given constitutional sanction. The J&K Constituent Assembly was convened on 31 October 1951. On 7 June 1952 Sheikh Abdullah moved this resolution in the Assembly. “Resolved that the National Flag of the Jammu and Kashmir State shall be rectangular in shape and red in colour with three equidistant vertical strip of equal width next to the staff and a white plough in the middle with its handle facing the strips. The ratio to the length of flag shall be 2:3.”

He recalled: “It was the 13th July 1931, when for the first time the people of Kashmir raised their voices against the system which had trampled upon their hopes and desires. This voice made their aspiration obvious and the sacrifices they had to undergo in raising this voice, from part of history now which I need not reiterate here. People marched on consistently and underwent various privations. They went ahead unflatteringly. It will not be out of place to give a brief description of their desires and aspirations in this House. Kashmir has always been the cradle of humanism, knowledge, unity, brotherhood and religious tolerance (cheers). A conspicuous thing in the history of Kashmir is, that it has never differentiated between high and low or between Hindus and Muslims, that is why in India, Kashmir had not only the status of a country but it was considered a place of religious pilgrimage. In knowledge, religion, brotherhood and tolerance Kashmir had a high position. The symbol of all the desires and aspirations of a country is its flag. …

“The Basic Principles Committee, after giving due consideration to all matters and keeping in view all those facts and desires, has proposed this flag.” At his request the President unfurled the flag. In our country the prominent and salient symbol of a peasant is his plough and that is why the plough must form a part of the flag.”

“The second salient feature in this flag is its red colour. This colour represents workers and labourers. The world has accepted the fact that the progress and welfare of the world depends on the toil of a workers and a peasant. Progress either in the field of science or elsewhere is mainly due to the worker and the peasant. The condition of a peasant and  of a worker was very bad and the big people exploiting their work lived luxuriously and wee busy in self-indulgence while the class who contributed for their luxury was in a miserable bad plight. Another class is of workers and it is an admitted fact that unless workers and peasants work hard, the world cannot progress. The red colour represents the working classes and that is why the basic Principles Committee has put forth the suggestion that the red colour should form the background. …

“The third feature of the flag is that it has three vertical, parallel and equidistant lines. Our State is generally and geographically divided into three parts i.e. Jammu Province, Kashmir Province and the flag will, be flown by the coming generations. This is a magnificence and a great flag bequeathed to us by our struggle for freedom.”

Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad said: “Sir, allow me to speak a few words on this auspicious day. Today is the day of great importance in our national history. Today we see that dream being materialised which our leader Qaid-i-Azam Sher-i-Kashmir dreamt some twenty years back. … Sir, I am growing sentimental. I heard speeches of my Hon’ble comrades and while listening to them the whole picture of the events from 1931 to the present day passed before my eyes. I remember the 13th day of July, when bullets were showered. I remember the 21st of September 1933 and the years of 1934, 1935, 1936, 1938 and 1946 when thousands sacrificed their lives to carry forward the movement. I recollect all the oppression and torture which the nation suffered; and especially I remember the day when Qaid-i-Azam pledged to a dying martyr that he had done his duty and that they would shoulder the responsibility for marching onwards. Thanks to the Almighty that we have fulfilled our promise.

“The colour of this flag is not an ordinary one but is dyed with the blood of these martyrs. I dare say that whatever they did, it was for the freedom of the country and the nation. They performed their duty and passed away. Today it is our responsibility to give to the country a flag in their name dyed in their blood, as a symbol. This is a great and an auspicious thing. … With full determination we are giving this flag to the people of Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh. This is the flag we are giving to the nation as a national trust and all of you, friends, are the trustees. …

“Today this flag is not of any single individual but this is common flag of the whole country. I know it full well that our Qaid-i-Azam has not or is not devoting only 24 hours a day to the cause of freedom but he has devoted every moment of his life to this cause. Today Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah is not giving you this flag in the name of his person but as a trust. He is giving you this flag in the name of those oppressed and martyrs who were subjected to untold miseries. … In every respect we must have faith in our Qaid-i-Azam. Unless we have blind faith in anything we cannot derive any pleasure by merely giving the flag to the world. This is the flag of the people living on both sides of the cease-fire line. As my comrade Beg Sahib has stated we will be successful only when this flag will be flown on the other side of the cease-fire line; when this flag will fly on the lofty mountain of Gilgit, on the vast fields of Mirpur and Poonch and on the mansions of Bimber. It is only then that we will think we have been successful in our mission.”

Mir Qasim proposed an amendment. “That the words “National” occurring before the word “Flag” in the first line of the resolution be deleted.” He said: “Because this flag was first prepared by the National Conference, it runs by the name of National flag. The members of the very same National conference who are now at the helm of affairs now present it as the State-Flag. Therefore, my submission is that the word “National” occurring before the word “Flag” be deleted.” Sheikh Abdullah readily accepted this amendment.

The motion was adopted with prolonged Cheers. G. M. Sadiq said “I think it proper that the Hon’ble members should rise for a moment to honour the flag”. They did. The National Conference under Abdullah was a leftist body. The CPI supported it.

On 19 August 1952 when the Delhi Agreement was debated, after the Sheikh had made a statement explaining it, Girdhari Lal Dogra said: “The statement which is now under the consideration of the House, is not an isolated thing of sudden growth. It is a product of the continuous development of the circumstances since 1931. It is a result of the sacrifices offered by the martyrs for the emancipation of this country.”

He fiercely attacked the Jammu communalists, especially their leader, Shyama Prasad Mookerjee. “They are the same communalists who caused the death of Mahatma Gandhi, but today they have the check to say that they are not communal-minded. By saying so today they insult the one-nation theory of India. Praja Parishad element of Jammu is allying itself with the traitors of India, and most of what is being against us today is being propagated by these very communalists. But while giving our decision regarding India, we must not take into account these people only. Amongst crores of Indians, we find traitors as well as honest gentlemen. We should not form our opinion about the general mentality of the Indian people by the actions of these few communalists. But the stooges hailing from Jammu declare their unwillingness to accept anything so long as they do not come to know of the true spirit underlying the statement.

“I would remind these people whether they be within or outside the State of some established facts. Perhaps some of the Hon’ble members do not know as what has been the role of Dr. Shyama Prasad Mookerji in the past. … We all know as to what was the role of Dr. Shyama Prasad Mukerjee At the time. In the days of famine in Bengal, Shyama Prasad Mukerji happened to be the Finance Minister there. The role he played in this capacity is hidden from none and I think that it needs no repetition. Dr. Shyama Prasad Mukerji is responsible fort the division of Bengal. Even today the people Bengal want that their motherland should be reunited. Not being satisfied with the division of Bengal, he has come here to divide our State and that too on the basis of the two-nation theory. This is his unholy design and he wants us to play into his hands and become tools of his provocation. Mr. Mukerji is playing the same game which is being played by the reactionary elements  of the whole world. Mr. Mukerji has launched this crusade against us in support of the vested interests.”

Responding to Mookerjee’s criticism, Dogra said: “Second objection raised by him is that why do we celebrate the Martyrs’ Day? I would like to ask if he wants us to celebrate a day in the remembrance of those acts which have put the whole humanity to shame. You cannot make any distinction among the martyrs’ on the basis of religion. We celebrate the Martyrs’ Day in memory of those who raised their voice against the autocracy in this State and made the backward masses politically conscious. I would refer to him the speech of our leader which he delivered at Udhampur wherein he paid tribute to those martyrs’. Regarding the question as to why the Kashmir issue was taken before the Security Council, I would say that he too must share the blame because he also was one of the members of the Central Cabinet.”

The Delhi Agreement between Nehru and Sheikh Abdullah dispelled all doubts on the flag. By mid-1952 Nehru had begun planning for closer integration of Kashmir with the Centre. In a Note dated 3 July 1952, he discussed various issues including the flag. “The National flag must be the symbol of authority in Kashmir. The new State Flag might continue, but not as a rival of the National Flag.”

Nehru met Kashmir’s delegation on 20 July 1952. It comprised the Sheikh, Beg, Bakshi, G. L. Dogra and D. P. Dhar. They met for four and a half hours. The minutes recorded: “Sheikh Abdullah had already made it clear in his public statements that the National Flag was the supreme flag and that it had the same status and position in the Jammu and Kashmir State as in the rest of India. The State flag was in no sense rival to this. But for historical and sentimental reasons, connected with the freedom struggle in Kashmir, they wanted this symbol to continue.

“This was agreed to. It was stated, however, that it would be desirable to make this perfectly clear. As the Constituent Assembly of the State had passed a resolution in regard to the State flag, it would be desirable that the Assembly made it clear what the position of the National Flag was.”

On the conclusion of the Delhi Agreement, Nehru explained its provisions to the Lok Sabha on 24 July 1952. he said: “Then there has been a good deal of misunderstanding in regard to the National Flag. This has been cleared up, I think, adequately by public statements made. Nevertheless, we thought that this should be further cleared up. Shaikh Abdullah, the Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir State, had stated publicly that the question did not arise so far as they were concerned, because the National Flag was the supreme flag and it had exactly the same status and position in the Jammu and Kashmir State as in any other part of India. The State flag was in no sense a rival to the National Flag, but for historical and sentimental reasons connected with their struggle for freedom in Kashmir, they wanted this State symbol to continue. This was agreed to. It was added that this should be made clear in a formal manner, preferably by the Constituent Assembly of the State.”

The Government of J&K issued a White Paper entitled “India and Kashmir – Constitutional Aspect”. It said: “With regard to the State Flag, it was made clear by the State Government that it was in no sense a rival of the Union Flag. It was also recognised that the Union Flag had the same status and position in the Jammu and Kashmir State as in the rest of India, but for historical and other reasons connected with the freedom struggle in the State need for the continuance of the State flag was recognised.”

In his statement to J&K’s Constituent Assembly on 11 August 1952 Sheikh Saheb said: “We agreed that in view of the clarifications issued by me in my public statements while interpreting the resolution of this House according to which the old State flag was substituted by a new one, it was obvious that the new State flag was in no sense a rival of the National flag. But for historical and other reasons connected with the freedom struggle in the State, the need for the continuance of this flag was recognised. The Union flag to which we continue our allegiance as a part of the Union will occupy the supremely distinctive place in the State.”

Significantly the men who had conspired to depose the Sheikh in 1953 did not repudiate the agreed constitutional position on the flag. On 6 November 1956, Mohammed Ayub Khan said: “It is indeed a great pleasure that the flag of the State will be the same as has already been decided upon. So far as the flag of the Indian Union is concerned we have every respect for it as every Indian must have. But we cannot deny the fact that the official flag chosen for our State has a bearing on our history. We have made sacrifices of men and material under this flag during the struggle for Independence. Many people gave their lives for it. Giving up this flag today would mean that we are forgetting our past struggle and that there is no guarantee for a glorious future for those who break all their relations with the past.”

Another member Abdul Ghani Goni said: “Today, it gives me a great pleasure to see the national flag fluttering which we have adopted after a great struggle. We have made great sacrifices for it. Lakhs of peasants, labourers and workers were united under this flag and carried on their struggle. The outcome of this struggle was that we convened the Constituent Assembly under this flag and today this Constituent Assembly is deciding the fate of our country.

“This is the result of our own sacrifices which we all have made so far for our country. We have adopted this flag after giving it our full consideration. The red colour and the plough mark of the flag brought about the unity of our country. On the one hand, it united Hindus and Muslims in our country while on the other it rooted out provincialism between Dogras and Kashmiris. It is the flag which was all along recognised by the National Conference and it is the same flag under which we are framing the Constitution for our country. We agree that the Indian flag is supreme in many respects and we honour it, but we have been given a special position by the leaders, Parliament and the Government of India. In view of our special position, we have our own flag and keeping in view our freedom struggle our own flag is supreme.”

It was sentiments like these that underly the cold print of S.144 which the Constituent Assembly adopted that day, 6 November 1956. When, half a century later, the State’s Assembly discussed the Report of the State Autonomy Committee,  on 8 April 2000, its Chairman Ghulam Mohiuddin Shah made a pointed reference to the accord on the flag.

None of this of course can mean anything to Mufti Mohammed Sayeed, a Johnny-Come-Lately. His entry into State politics under Sadiq owed a lot to Indira Gandhi. He has always been Nw Delhi’s man in Srinagar. On taking the oath of office, on 1 March 2015, he struck heroic postures. In less than a fortnight he beat a retreat on several issues. Kashmir’s flag was one of them. On 12 March, a Government Circular said that it had, according to the State’s Constitution, the “same sanctity and position as the National Flag.” It said in explicit terms “The flag shall always be hoisted jointly on the buildings, housings, and shall be used (sic.) on the official cars of Constitutional authorities.” It was issued by the Commissioner Secretary of the General Administration Department, Mohammed Ashraf Bukhari. He warned that “Its non-hoisting along with the National flag, amounts to insult to the flag as per the provisions of the Jammu & Kashmir Prevention of Insult to State Honours Act, 1979.” (Muzaffar Raina; The Telegraph; 14 March 2015).

The State’s High Court was then hearing a petition by a former Indian Forest Service Officer, seeking directions inter alia for “demonstration of dignity to the State Flag by the State Government.” Mufti fell in line with the BJP. In 1952 Mookerjee gave it the slogan “Ek desh men do vidhan, do pradhan aur do nishan nahin chalega” (There cannot be two constitutions, two Premiers and two flags in the country). The officer was let down – the Circular was not sanctioned by the “competent authority”. It needed no such sanction. It has he sanction of Kashmir’s Constituent Assembly, its own Constitution, and the Delhi Agreement.

Matters did not end there. Zahid Rafiq reported in The Hindu (14 July 2015) that “for the first time in Jammu & Kashmir, a ruling party has refused to be part of the official Martyrs’ Day function that pays homage to the 21 Kashmiris who were killed by the forces of the Dogra Maharaja in 1931.”

The BJP leader Ravinder Rana said “13 July was a black day in Kashmir’s history when some goons revolted against the rule of Maharaja Hari Singh…. We observe it as a black day and not as a Martyrs’ Day. We want the Government to revoke the official holiday.”

This is what Mufti has accomplished, not the unity of Jammu and Kashmir, but by giving the BJP legitimacy into Valley, he has widened the rift. We do not have G. L. Dogra to oppose the BJP which has nailed its mast to the Counter – it stands by Dogra rule from the traitor Gulab Singh of 1846 to Hari Singh who fled from Srinagar when the raiders from Pakistan entered the State on 22 October 1947. By allying himself with the BJP, Mufti has betrayed the ideals for which Kashmiris fought the Dogras.

Friday, December 13, 2013

History of Jammu Kashmir

Early history

  • 1846: Kashmir is ceded: Sikh Empire ceded Kashmir to the East India Company via Treaty of Lahore. The British gave it to Maharaja Gulab Singh Dogra of Jammu, after the Treaty of Amritsar was signed.
  • 1857: The War of independence, The Subcontinent fractured into hundreds of states
  • 1931: Kashmir’s first organized protest: The people of Kashmir hold their first organized protest against Maharajah Hari Singh’s cruelty. The 1931 protest led to the “Quit Kashmir” campaign against the Maharajah in 1946, and eventually to the Azad Kashmir movement which gained momentum a year later.
  • March 23, 1940: Pakistan Resolution passed: The Pakistan Resolution is passed at Iqbal Park, Lahore. The resolution demands the establishment of an independent state comprising all regions in which Muslims are the majority. The letter “K” in the word “Pakistan” represents Kashmir.
  • July 26, 1946: Azad Kashmir comes into being: The Muslim Conference adopts the Azad Kashmir Resolution on July 26, 1946 calling for the end of autocratic rule in the region. The resolution also claims for Kashmiris the right to elect their own constituent assembly.
  • June 3, 1947: British accept Pakistan plan:

The British government announces its intention to accept the demand by Muslims for an independent Pakistani state. The new nation would comprise areas where Muslims are in the majority. All political parties, including the Muslim League (representing Muslims) and the Congress Party (representing all including nationalist Muslims), accept the plan.

Independence, 1947

  • August 14/15, 1947: Independence of the British India into India and Pakistan.
  • August 1947: Kashmiri resistance encounters Maharajah’s troops: The first armed encounter between the Maharajah’s troops and insurgent forces occurred in August 1947. At this time, Britain was liquidating its empire in the subcontinent.
  • October 25, 1947: Maharajah flees to Jammu:

Faced with a popular revolt against his rule, the Maharajah flees to Jammu on October 25, 1947. Once in Jammu, the Maharajah receives a commitment of military assistance from the Indian government in exchange for his signing the “Instrument of Accession” document.
Lord Mountbatten conditionally accepts the document on behalf of the British Crown and proceeds to outline the conditions for official acceptance in a letter dated October 27, 1947.
“In consistence with their policy that in the case of any (native) state where the issue of accession has been subject of dispute, the question of accession should be decided in accordance with the wishes of the people of the state, it is my government’s wish that as soon as law and order have been restored in Kashmir and her soil cleared of the invaders the question of state’s accession should be settled by a reference to the people.”

  • October 1947: Pashtuns from Pakistan’s Afghania storm Kashmir, Maharaja of Kashmir asks India for help.This was considered by India as a deliberate ploy by Pakistan to Increase their support in Kashmir.
  • November 1, 1947: Kashmir’s accession to India is not “bona fide”: Jinnah:

Governor General of Pakistan, Mohammad Ali Jinnah meets Governor General of India, Mountbatten. Jinnah tells Mountbatten that Kashmir’s accession to India “was not a bona fide one since it rested on fraud and violence.”

  • November 2, 1947: Kashmiris have a right to determine future: Nehru:

Indian Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, in a speech aired on All-India Radio, reaffirmed the Indian Government’s commitment to the right of the Kashmiri people to determine their own future through a plebiscite:
“We have declared that the fate of Kashmir is ultimately to be decided by the people. That pledge we have given, and the Maharajah has supported it, not only to the people of Jammu and Kashmir, but also to the world. We will not and cannot back out of it. We are prepared when peace and law have been established to have a referendum held under international auspices like the United Nations. We want it to be a fair and just reference to the people and we shall accept their verdict.”
The Government of India accepted the “Instrument of accession” conditionally, promising the people of the state and the world at large that “accession” would be final only after the wishes of the people of the state were ascertained upon return of normalcy in the state.

  • January 1948: India brings Kashmir issue to UN Security Council:

India brought the issue to the United Nations Security Council in January 1948. The rebel forces had been joined by volunteers from Pakistan and India charged Pakistan with having sent “armed raiders” into the state. It demanded that Pakistan be declared an aggressor in Kashmir. Furthermore, India demanded that Pakistan stop aiding Militants, and allowing the transit of tribesmen into the state.
After acceptance of these demands, coupled with the assurance that all “raiders” were withdrawn, India would allow a plebiscite to be held under impartial auspices to decide Kashmir’s future status.
In reply, Pakistan charged India with maneuvering the Maharajah’s accession through “fraud and violence” and colluding with a “discredited” ruler in the repression of his people. Pakistan’s counter complaint was also coupled with the proposal of a plebiscite under the supervision and control of the United Nations to settle the dispute.[citation needed]

  • April 21, 1948: UN resolution envisages cease-fire, withdrawals:

The Security Council discussed the question from January until April 1948. It came to the conclusion that it would be impossible to determine responsibility for the fighting and futile to blame either side. Since both parties desired that the question of accession should be decided through an impartial plebiscite, the council developed proposals based on the common ground between them.
These were embodied in the resolution of April 21, 1948, envisaging a cease-fire, the withdrawal of all outside forces from the state, and a plebiscite under the control of an administrator who would be nominated by the Secretary General. For negotiating the details of the plan, the council constituted a five-member commission known as “United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan,” (UNCIP) to implement the resolution.
After the cease-fire, positions on both sides of the cease-fire line were manned by regular military personnel of the respective countries. As withdrawal of outside forces has not taken place since, the resolution of 1948 is yet to be realized.

  • 1947/1948: Indo-Pakistani War of 1947
  • January 24, 1957: UN Security Council reaffirms 1948 resolution:

The Security Council, reaffirming its previous resolution, further declared that any action taken by the Constituent Assembly formed in Kashmir “would not constitute disposition of the state in accordance with the above principles.”

1965 Indo-Pakistani war

  • March 1965: India claims Kashmir:

The Indian Parliament passes a bill declaring Kashmir a province of India.

  • August 1965: Pakistan sends infiltrators:

India accuses Pakistan of sending infiltrators to Kashmir. Indian forces cross the cease-fire line in Kashmir.

  • September 6, 1965: India retaliates against Pakistan:

India attacks Pakistan across the international border and tries to capture Pakistan’s second largest city, Lahore.

  • 1965: Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
  • September 23, 1965: calls for an end to hostilities:

The United Nations Security Council arranges a cease-fire Line.

  • January 10, 1966: Tashkent agreement signed:

The Soviet Union arranges talks between Pakistan and India. The Tashkent Agreement is signed through the mediating efforts of the Soviet Prime Minister Alexi Kosygin. The agreement reaffirms that the dispute should be settled by peaceful means. The armies are to withdraw to their original positions.

1971 Indo-Pakistani war

  • November 1971: attack against East Pakistan:

Indian Army liberates East Pakistan.

  • December 6, 1971: Indo-Pakistani War of 1971; Liberation of East Bangla
  • December 16, 1971-Bangladesh is established:

Pakistan surrenders East Pakistan to India. India declares East Pakistan as “Bangladesh.”

  • July 2, 1972: Republic of India and Pakistan agree to respect the cease-fire as Line of Control, Simla Agreement signed: The Simla Agreement between Pakistan and India is signed. Both agree to make efforts toward establishing durable peace by seeking a solution to existing problems, including “a final settlement of Jammu and Kashmir.”. The following principles were agreed in the Simla Agreement (i) A mutual commitment to the peaceful resolution of all issues through direct bilateral approaches. (ii) To build the foundations of a cooperative relationship with special focus on people to people contacts. (iii) To uphold the inviolability of the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir, which is a most important CBM between India and Pakistan, and a key to durable peace.
  • 1978: Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act, 1978 : Human rights organizations have also asked Indian government to repeal the Public Safety Act, since “a detainee may be held in administrative detention for a maximum of two years without a court order.”
  • April 13, 1984: The Indian Army takes Siachen Glacier region of Kashmir

Disputed 1987 State elections

  • 1987:Since after 1987 disputed rigged Sate elections in Indian Administered Kashmir that an Indian Congress party leader called Khem Lata Wukhloo stated from bbc news page”I remember there was massive rigging in the 1987 elections. It shook ordinary people’s faith in the… democratic process’ Furthermore it had resulted in some of the ‘states legislative assembly’ ‘formed militant wings’ later on after the election forming and creating the catalsyt for the insurgency in 1989 and the Peacful Protest movement in 1989 .

Rise of Peaceful Protest Movement

  • 1989: The peacful protest movement that stated in 1989 has been a ‘purely indigenous, purely Kashmiri’ by Washington post from Mirwaiz Farooq a Kashmiri party leader) ‘Ghandi style’ (stated by Wall Street Journal) peaceful protest movement in Indian Administered Kashmir since 1989 continues today. The movement was created for the same reason as the insurgency ;the disputed rigged elections in 1987 ,Kashmir dispute and grievances with the Indian government specifically the Indian Military that has committed human rights violations .This reinforced by the United Nations that has said India has committed Human rights violations .(the movement continues today)

Rise of militancy 1989

  • 1988: Operation Tupac launched by Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence to support militants in Kashmir with aim of disintegrating India .However Pakistan says stated by bbc and contends that they only give ‘moral’ and ‘diplomatic’ support to the ‘movement’ of what bbc called ‘armed resistance’ in Kashmir .Timeline of the conflict
  • 1989: Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir:In 1989, a widespread armed insurgency started in Kashmir, Since after 1987 disputed rigged Sate elections resulted in some of the ‘states legislative assembly’ ‘formed militant wings’ later on after the election forming and creating the catalyst for the insurgency which continues to this day furthermore ‘in part’ fueled by Afghan Mujahadeen in 1989 .Pakistan has been accused of supporting the insurgency .Timeline of the conflict
  • December 8, 1989: Kidnapping of Rubaiya Sayeed
  • February 5, 1990: Solidarity day is observed throughout Pakistan and Azad Kashmir for the alleged massacres by Indian armed forces as Indian state Terrorism
  • January 19, 1990: Kashmir brought under Indian control:

The Indian government brings Kashmir under its direct control. The state legislature is suspended, the government is removed and the former Director General of the Indian Secret Service, Research and Analysis Wing (RAW), Mr. Jagmohan is appointed governor.

  • January 20, 1990: Gawakadal massacre:

There are large-scale demonstrations and thirty people are killed by Indian security forces. A curfew is imposed in most cities.

  • February 25, 1990: support from civil servants:

Government employees join demonstrations.

  • February 27, 1990: United Nations not allowed in Kashmir:

India refuses to allow any United Nations official to visit Kashmir.

  • Feberuary 28, 1990: Zakoora And Tengpora Massacre :

In order to halt the people, who were to submit a memorandum to United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP), Indian army opened fire at Tengpora bypass and Zakoora crossing in Srinagar, killing 26 and 21 demonstrators, respectively.

  • March 2, 1990: Kashmiris shot during Srinagar march:

Forty people are killed when police open fire at a march of more than one million Kashmiris through the streets of Srinagar. Police are ordered to shoot at sight.

  • April 14, 1990: military reinforcements in Kashmir:

Indian authorities send military reinforcements to Kashmir.

  • July 1990: Jammu and Kashmir Disputed Areas Act passed:

Under this act, India’s security forces personnel have extraordinary powers over anyone who is suspected of disturbing the peace or harboring militants or arms.

  • July 5, 1990 – THE ARMED FORCES (JAMMU AND KASHMIR) SPECIAL POWERS ACT, 1990 The “Armed Forces Special Powers Act”, enables certain special wide powers to be conferred upon members of the armed forces in the disturbed areas in the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Any officer in the armed forces may, in a disturbed area, after giving such due warning as he may consider necessary, fire upon or otherwise use force, even to the causing of death, against any person who is acting in contravention of any law or order; prohibit the assembly of five or more persons; prohibit carrying of weapons; arrest, without warrant, any persons who has committed a cognizable offence .The Human rights organizations such as Amnesty International[citation needed] and the Human Rights Watch (HRW) have condemned human rights abuses in Kashmir by Indians such as “extra-judicial executions”, “disappearances”, and torture; and have asked India to repeal the “Armed Forces Special Powers Act”
  • February 23, 1991: Kunan Poshpora incident
  • June 11, 1991: Syed Mansoor-Chota Bazaar massacre: The CRPF troops opened indiscriminate fire, having been frightened by the sound of a tire burst, leaving 32 civilians killed in the densely populated area of Chotabazar, Srinagar. The killed included, shopkeepers, passers-by, old persons, women and children.
  • November 1992: Amnesty International not allowed into Kashmir:

Amnesty International is barred from going to the Kashmir valley.

  • January 6, 1993: Sopore massacre
  • April 10, 1993: Burning of Lal Chowk
  • January 1–3, 1994: another failure over Kashmir:

Pakistan and India’s foreign secretaries fail to narrow differences on Kashmir. Pakistan rules out more talks unless India ends alleged human rights violations in Kashmir.

  • January 20, 1995: India doesn’t want third-party involvement in Kashmir:

India excludes the possibility of third-party involvement in the resolution of the Kashmir dispute. But it says it is prepared to hear from Pakistan directly about how much “elbow room” is necessary to commence talks between the two countries.

  • May 9, 1995: fire rages through Chrar Sharif:

Hundreds of homes are destroyed on Eid when a fire rages through Chrar Sharif. The Terrorists were under siege by the Indian army for two months in this town.

  • May 12, 1995: anti-India protest in the wake of Chrar Sharif fire:

Anti-India protests overwhelm the Kashmir Valley in the wake of the destruction of the 650-year-old mausoleum of Sheikh Nooruddin Wali (R.A.) and a mosque next to it. India accuses Pakistan of being behind the destruction of the shrine and issues a strong warning against interference in its internal affairs.

  • May 18, 1995: APHC rejects offer for talks on Kashmir with India:

The APHC rejects an offer for talks on Kashmir by New Delhi. The organization says it will not enter into any dialogue with New Delhi unless India admits Kashmir is a disputed territory.

  • July 4, 1995: 1995 kidnapping of western tourists in Jammu and Kashmir
  • July 20, 1995: journalists’ kidnapping in Kashmir a sign of media clampdown:

The New York-based Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) says the kidnapping of four journalists in Kashmir is only one current example of a complete clampdown on any independent journalism in the area. In its report, On the Razor’s Edge, the CPJ also notes the Indian government harasses and intimidates reporters.

  • November 11, 1995: India launches anti-Pakistan propaganda campaign:

Upset about the media and human rights reports against its campaign of suppression and repression in Indian administered Jammu and Kashmir, India launches a multi-million dollar propaganda campaign against Pakistan. Pakistan is accused of aiding and abetting terrorism in Kashmir using money from the drug trade.

  • December 23, 1995: APHC seeks intervention of UN, OIC and others:

The APHC seeks the intervention of the United Nations, Organization of the Islamic Conference, Amnesty International and other worldwide human rights bodies to help stop India’s destruction of Indian administered Kashmir.

  • February 16, 1996: APHC calls for tripartite talks:

Kashmiri groups ask India and Pakistan to begin tripartite talks to end the six-year-old rebellion against New Delhi. The groups say most Muslims in the area support the proposal.

  • May 5, 1996: Indian Prime Minister makes his first visit to Kashmir:

Indian Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao makes his first visit to Kashmir. He says upcoming general elections in the region could not be foiled by what he described as Pakistani moves toward destabilization.

  • May 13, 1996: government employees boycott Indian elections:

Over 1.5 million government workers assigned to election duty by Indian authorities strike for 18 days to boycott the electoral process at the call of Jammu and Kashmir Government Employees Confederation.

  • June 8, 1996: APHC rejects greater autonomy:

The APHC rejects the Indian government’s offer of greater autonomy for Indian administered Kashmir. The organization says the problem cannot be resolved by remaining in India.

  • August 2, 1996: Gowda tries to sweeten the deal for Kashmir:

HD Deve Gowda, Prime Minister of India, reveals a package of economic benefits for Kashmir just before state elections scheduled for the following month. Gowda announces outstanding loans of up to Rs.50, 000 will be waived, Kashmir will receive special assistance of Rs.3.52 billion for developing infrastructure in the state.

  • September 14, 1996: APHC leadership arrested:

Prior to elections for the state assembly, Indian troops arrest the APHC’s entire leadership.

  • September 16, 1996: Elections held in Kashmir:

Peaceful assembly elections in Kashmir.

  • March 3, 1997: Mujahedeen reject carving up Kashmir:

Kashmiri Mujahedeen reject the carving up of Kashmir between India and Pakistan. “The proposal for any kind of division of the state can never be accepted by the people of Jammu and Kashmir, and we will always oppose it,” says Shabir Ahmed Shah, a Kashmiri leader.

  • March 28, 1997: India and Pakistan begin negotiations:

Pakistan’s Foreign Secretary, Shamshad Ahmad, and India’s Foreign Secretary, Salman Haider, meet at the negotiating table for the first time in three years. The issue of Kashmir is high on the agenda.

  • March 31, 1997: talks look hopeful:

Pakistan and India end four days of talks aimed at reducing tension and agree to meet again in Islamabad.

  • April 22, 1997: change in government elicits cautious reaction in Kashmir:

The people in Indian administered Jammu & Kashmir react cautiously over the change of government in India.

  • May 12, 1997: India and Pakistan meet again:

Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and Indian Prime Minister Inder Kumar Gujral agree to establish joint working groups to resolve all outstanding issues between the two countries since 1947.

  • May 15, 1997: Indian Government has been criticized by Amnesty and a party member from Jammu and kashmir Amnesty saying Amnesty International has documented violations in Jammu and Kashmir including torture,rape, deaths in custody, extrajudicial executions and “disappearances” over a number of years.Investigation and prosecution in cases of human rights violations are rare, and armed forces have been given a free rein in the region with little civilian control over their operations and furthermore “Access to redress for victims of human rights violations, a right guaranteed under international law, is being denied to victims in Jammu and Kashmir,” .The party member from Jammu and kashmir said “It’s high time that the Government of India put an end to impunity for the perpetrators of human rights violations,” the organization said. Furthemore “The arrest and detention yesterday evening of Yasin Malik and others can only serve to undermine the government’s stated commitment to human rights.” For example In an incident on 22 April, several armed forces personnel forcibly entered the house of a 32-year-old woman in the village of Wawoosa in the Rangreth district of Jammu and Kashmir. They reportedly molested her 12-year-old daughter and raped her other three daughters, aged 14, 16 and 18.When another woman attempted to prevent soldiers from attacking her two daughters, she was beaten. Soldiers reportedly told her 17-year-old daughter to remove her clothes so that they could check whether she was hiding a gun. They molested her before leaving the house.
  • June 22, 1997: India and Pakistan reach an agreement:

Pakistan and India agree to establish a mechanism for enduring dialogue on issues between the two countries.

  • June 23, 1997: Kashmir is one of eight major issues:

Pakistan and India pinpoint eight issues to be discussed in future talks including the issue of Jammu and Kashmir. However, Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif says the country maintains its stand on Kashmir.

  • June 25, 1997: India says Kashmir is not a “disputed territory”:

At the conclusion of a second round of talks in Islamabad, India rejects Pakistan’s assertion that Jammu and Kashmir is a “disputed territory.”
Indian Foreign Minister, Salman Haider, says India will not discuss the status of Indian-held Kashmir with Pakistan. He says if anything is to be discussed it will be “Pakistan-held” Kashmir and northern areas illegally annexed by Pakistan.

  • July 27, 1997: Gujral does a turnaround:

In a turnaround from the previous day’s statement, Indian Prime Minister, Inder Kumar Gujral, says that Kashmiri Terrorists would have to surrender their arms before peace talks with the government could begin.

  • August 10, 1997: increase in reports of harassment of Kashmiri women:

Reports are coming through of Kashmiri women and girls being arrested, tortured and raped. The chairperson of the Indian Commission for Women, Dr. Mohini Giri, said Kashmiri women were being treated in the most inhumane way all over Kashmir.

  • October 12, 1997: rioting after Jami Mosque desecration:

Angry anti-India demonstrations are sparked by the desecration of the historic Jamia Mosque in Srinagar by Indian troops. They besieged the mosque, entered it wearing their boots and carried out an extensive search for three hours.

  • January 25, 1998: Wandhama massacre 23 Kashmiri Pandit villagers killed by militants.
  • April 2, 1998: Pakistan accused of fomenting war in Kashmir:

India’s new government accuses Pakistan of helping Kashmiri separatists and warns it is ready to respond to the “proxy war” in Kashmir.

  • April 10, 1998: Pakistan and India should “go the extra mile”:

United States Ambassador to the United Nations, Bill Richardson, urges Pakistan and India to “go the extra mile” and hold a dialogue on Kashmir and other issues in order to stop the nuclear missile race in the area.

  • April 17, 1998: 1998 Prankote massacre 26 Hindu villagers killed in village of Prankote by Islamic terrorists.
  • April 22, 1998: appointment of new Kashmir governor:

The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) government appoints Girsh Saxena as Governor of Jammu and Kashmir. The appointment is resented by human rights activists and intellectuals who demanded a senior politician close to Kashmir be sent as governor.

  • May 11 and 13, 1998: India conducts five nuclear tests.
  • May 28 and 30, 1998: Pakistan responds by conducting its six nuclear tests (five on May 28 and one on May 30).
  • May 24, 1998: major offensive against Mujahedeen:

Kashmir’s Chief Minister, Farooq Abdullah, says India will launch a major offensive against “foreign” fighters in the northern state of Kashmir and that the Indian government is ready to “flush” the terrorists out of the state.

  • May 26, 1998: Indian troops and Mujahedeen clash:

In Indian administered Kashmir, Mujahedeen clash with Indian troops in the Keri, Rajauri area.

  • May 30, 1998: India responds to nuclear testing:

In response to Pakistan’s nuclear testing, India warns Islamabad about Kashmir. Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee says while India was ready to talk to Pakistan it should harbor no ambitions towards capturing Kashmir. Pakistan says it is prepared to have a non-aggression pact with India on the basis of just settlement of the Kashmir issue.

  • June 6, 1998: Pakistan proposes Kashmir resolution and a halt to nuclear arms buildup:

Pakistani Prime Minister, Nawaz Sharif, proposes talks between Islamabad and New Delhi to stop the South Asian arms race and urges the international community to help resolve the issue of Kashmir.

  • June 19, 1998: 1998 Champanari massacre 25 Hindu villagers killed by militants in Doda district of Kashmir.
  • August 1, 1998: “massive” joint operations against Mujahedeen:

India’s Home Minister, L.K. Advani, says more forces are being sent to Indian administered Kashmir for “massive” joint operations. He said this is because the Kashmiri Mujahedeen have intensified their efforts in the valley for the last many months.

  • August 19, 1998: Vajpayee wants new talks:

India’s Prime Minister, Atal Behari Vajpayee, offers talks with Pakistan. However, he says the dialogue has to be comprehensive and not just focused on Kashmir.

  • August 26, 1998: India bans Britannica CD-ROM:

India bans importation of Encyclopædia Britannica on CD-ROM because it shows Kashmir as a disputed territory.

  • August 29, 1998: Nelson Mandela’s involvement in Kashmir issue urged:

The Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) calls on South African President, Nelson Mandela, to persuade Pakistani and Indian teams attending a Non-Aligned Movement meeting to solve the Kashmir issue in a peaceful, democratic and permanent manner.

  • September 2, 1998: NAM calls for resolution of Kashmir dispute:

For the first time in history, the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) calls for a peaceful resolution of the dispute over Jammu and Kashmir. Nelson Mandela, who chaired the 12th NAM summit, says everyone should hope the issue of Jammu and Kashmir is solved through peaceful negotiations and everyone should be willing to help resolve the matter.
Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee says “third parties” should stay out of the Kashmir dispute.

  • September 23, 1998: Pakistan and India agree to resume Kashmir talks:

Pakistan and India agree to resume stalled dialogue on Kashmir and other security issues.

  • October 18, 1998: no agreement between India and Pakistan:

The first diplomatic talks between the two countries since nuclear testing was conducted by the two in May, end in Islamabad. There is no agreement on how to ease tensions in the area.

1999 Kargil War


  • May 26, 1999: Kargil War

Armed conflict occurs between India and Pakistan due to the infiltration of Pakistani soldiers and Kashmiri militants into positions on the Indian side of the Line of Control. After three weeks of “intense skirmishes” between India and Pakistan, India launches air strikes against Mujahedeen supported by Pakistan Army in Kargil. India claims up to 680 “Afghan militants,” backed by Pakistan, have invaded high ridges and another 400 are waiting to cross over to the Indian side of the Line of Control. Pakistan calls the air strikes “very, very serious” and puts its troops on high alert. India and Pakistan agree to hold talks over Kashmir in the first sign that the two sides might be trying to defuse escalating tensions.

  • June 1999: Kashmir peace hope flounders:

As India promises to continue ground and air strikes against infiltrators, a senior Indian minister warns there is little point in peace talks with Pakistan. But after some time, talks on Kashmir are confirmed. Pakistan and India fix a date for their first significant attempt to defuse the tension over Kashmir.
However, India continues its assault on suspected infiltrators holed up in the Himalayas with fresh air strikes, ahead of talks with Pakistan. India and Pakistan end their talks on the fierce fighting in Kashmir without agreement on how to halt the conflict. India presses ahead with its military offensive a day after US President Clinton asks Pakistan to persuade them to pull out.

  • July 1999: Clinton urges India-Pakistan talks:

India announces it has taken the key Tiger Hill peak following an all-out assault. Mujahedeen fighters are reported to be leaving the mountains of Indian administered Kashmir as India emerges victorious in the two-month conflict. As fighting in the territory dies down, Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif appeals for a permanent settlement of the Kashmir dispute.


  • February 2000: US President makes statement:

President Bill Clinton says he would be happy to mediate between India and Pakistan over the Kashmir conflict—if asked.

  • March 2000: killings in mosque:

Indian troops in kashmir kill three separatists in a mosque near the border town of Handwara. In the same month, 36 Sikhs are massacred in the village of Chattisinghpora by the Pakistani terrorists.

  • August 1, 2000: 2000 Amarnath pilgrimage massacre
  • August 2000: more negotiations:

The Indian government and Mujahedeen commanders prepare for a round of peace talks.

  • November 2000: call for Muslim nations to cut ties with India:

A leading separatist, Syed Salahuddin, calls on Muslim nations to cut diplomatic and economic ties with India. At the same time, Kashmiri leaders call on India to recognize the territory as disputed and to hold talks with Pakistan and Kashmiri leaders.

  • June 2001: fresh talks:

A new round of talks are slated to begin between India and Pakistan on the issue of Kashmir.

  • July 14–16, 2001: General Pervez Musharraf and Atal Behari Vajpayee meet for peace talks, Agra Summit:

Indian Prime Minister, Atal Behari Vajpayee, and Pakistani President, Pervez Musharraf, meet in Agra, India for a summit on relations between the two nations..

  • October 2001: 2001 attack on Jammu and Kashmir legislative assembly kills 38 people.
  • December 2001: Attack on Indian parliament in New Delhi initiates the 2001-2002 India-Pakistan standoff
  • May 14, 2002: Kaluchak massacre
  • July 13, 2002: 2002 Qasimnagar massacre of Kashmiri Pandits
  • March 30, 2002: 2002 fidayeen attacks on Raghunath temple
  • March 23, 2003: 2003 Nadigram killings of Kashmiri Hindus
  • May 2, 2003: India and Pakistan restore diplomatic ties.
  • July 11, 2003: Delhi-Lahore bus service resumes
  • September 24, 2004: Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and President Musharraf meet in New York during UN General Assembly.
  • January 8, 2005: 11 killed in sectarian violence in Gilgit in Pakistan administered Kashmir
  • February 15, 2006: United States Congress passes a resolution condemning ethnic cleansing of Kashmiri Pandits by Islamic militants in Kashmir.
  • April 30, 2006: 2006 Doda massacre of Hindus.
  • July, 2006 : Second round of Indo-Pakistani peace talks.
  • Feb, 2007 : Samjhauta Express firebombed, 67 killed
  • June, 2007 : Two Indian soldiers have been paraded naked for allegedly attempting to rape a girl in Indian-administered Kashmir, police say.
  • Nov 2007: Human rights organizations such as Amnesty International[citation needed] and the Human Rights Watch (HRW) have condemned human rights abuses in Kashmir by Indians such as “extra-judicial executions”, “disappearances”, and torture; and have asked India to repeal the “Armed Forces Special Powers Act”
  • June 2008: Amarnath land transfer controversy. Huge anti-India protests were held against the transfer of land to SASB (shrine board), which was an outside state organization, as it was a direct violation of article 370 of the Indian constitution.
  • August 13, 2008: After the Hindu-Muslim clashes in the town of Kishtwar, Doda district, India gave shoot on sight orders in Kishtwar. Kishtwar witnessed violent clashes between Hindus and Muslims on 12 August that left at least 28 people dead, while at least two people were killed as a result of alleged police firing. Amnesty International asked India to rescind the shoot on sight order.
  • August 25, 2008: All anti Indian ,separatist and Islamist organisation leaders arrested due to their uncontrolled anti-Indian activities , to restore the law and order in the Indian-administered Kashmir.
  • August 27, 2008: The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights is concerned about the recent violent protests in Indian-administered Kashmir that have reportedly led to civilian casualties as well as restrictions to the right to freedom of assembly and expression.
  • October 5, 2008: Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari says India has never been a threat to Pakistan, and that militants in Indian-administered Kashmir are terrorists
  • December 24, 2008: 2008 Kashmir Elections: Assembly elections held in Jammu and Kashmir. With a record turnout of 62 per cent – the highest in 20 years
  • December 30, 2008: Omar Abdullah of National Conference chosen the new Chief minister of Jammu and Kashmir, takes oath on January 5, 2009, becoming the 11th and the youngest Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Feberuary 21, 2009 : Bomai Killing :

Army kills two devotees in an indiscriminate firing incident by 22nd Battalion of Rashtriya Rilfes in Bomai, Sopore. Which results in a massive valley wide protests.

  • March 6, 2009Nowhatta Killing :

Army vehicle killed one youth and crushed another at Nawhatta during a protest against detention of separatist leaders. The killing triggered violent protests across the city. Authorities clamped curfew continuously for four days.

  • March 18, 2009Khaigam killing

Barely a few hours after the union home minister, P Chidambaram, assured action against troopers found guilty for Bomai killings,181 bn of paramilitary CRPF troopers shot dead a carpenter, Ghulam Mohiudin Malik son of Muhammad Akbar Malik, at Khaigam Pakherpora in south Kashmir’s Pulwama district.

  • March 23, 2009:

UN Commissioner for Human Rights Navnetham Pillay asked India to repeal the Armed Forces Special Powers Act which breaches contemporary international human rights standards. She also asked the government of India to address the cases of alleged disappearances in Kashmir.
6 militants from Pakistan-based militant group Lashkar-e-Taiba and 8 India army soldiers were killed in five day long gun battle in Shamsabari.

  • April 20, 2009: Senior separatist leader Sajjad Lone took part in the Indian democratic process by contesting in the Indian 2009 Lok Sabha elections from the Kupwara-Baramullah constituency. However, he lost the elections coming in third behind the winner Sharifuddin Shariq of the National Conference and PDP candidate Mohammad Dilawar Mir.
  • May 18, 2009:Extrajudicial killing of a civilian, Manzoor Ahmad Beigh, in the custody of Special Operations Group of Indian police triggered massive anti-India protests near his residence at Alochi Bagh.
  • May 26, 2009:Arif Ayub Wani of Ganderpora killed by Indian police during a protest in downtown against the custodial killing of Manzoor Ahmad Beigh.
  • May 31, 2009:Shopian rape and murder case:Protests over rape and murder of two young women allegedly by Indian Armed Forces. Pro-freedom leaders arrested and police and paramilitary forces resorted to firing at protesters in several places, including Shopian, Baramulla and Srinagar killing one person and injuring hundreds. Four Indian police officials were suspended Monday over the cover up of a rape and murder case that has sent shockwaves through the disputed Muslim-majority Kashmir region, officials said..The high court in Indian-administered Kashmir has appealed to the people of Shopian district to end their strike over the alleged murders of two women. Chief Justice Barin Ghosh assured the family of the two women that “we will go to the bottom of this matter and bring the culprits to justice”.
  • June 2, 2009: 17-year-old Nigeen Awan was shot and killed at her residence by Militants.
  • June 16, 2009: 45-year-old Rashma Jan died when terrorists barged into her house at Sopore on June 16 and fired indiscriminately.
  • June 29, 2009: An Indian soldier was killed due to firing from Pakistan’s side.
  • June 30, 2009: Two protesters were killed and 10 others injured, some of them critically, when police opened fire on protestors demonstrating against the alleged misbehaviour of policeman Mohammad Amin with a woman in this North Kashmir town.
  • July 1, 2009: Three militants belonging to Lashker-e-Toiba (LeT) militant outfit were killed in Kashmir during gun fighting with Indian army. LeT group is accused for carrying out the last year’s Mumbai attack that killed over 170 people and injured over 300.
  • July 6, 2009: Thirteen persons, including four policemen, were injured in a grenade attack by militants on a police party and in clashes with security personnel.
  • July 8, 2009: Pakistani president Asif Zardari admitted Pakistan created terrorist groups to help achieve its foreign policy goals. Mr. Zardari confirmed that many of the Islamic militants now waging war against his government were once “strategic assets”. He said and confirmed the military was now targeting those it had previously used as proxies in attacks on India.
  • July 21, 2009: Two police officer were killed in Indian administered Kashmir attack. Sub-Inspector Sethi Ram was killed on the spot and Constable Shafiq Ahmad of the Special Operations Group (SOG) died later and three others were injured when suspected militants fired a rifle grenade at a police camp in Imam Sahib village, a South Kashmir village
  • July 24, 2009: America’s top military officer Mike Mullen has said the ISI is fomenting “chaotic activity” in Kashmir and Afghanistan. Mullen said the ISI has been supporting militant groups in Kashmir and advised Islamabad to restrain the ISI.
  • August 18, 2009 : Indian Government stated there had been 3429 youth missing since 1990 – till date. However local and international rights groups have suggested over 8,000 people have disappeared in the region
  • August 20, 2009: Human Rights workers discovered several unmarked graves containing about 1,500 unidentified bodies in Indian Administered Kashmir. Last year in a report titled, “Facts Under Ground” APDP had reported finding the unmarked graves of about 1,000 people near Uri, an area near the de facto frontier that divides Indian- and Pakistani-controlled Kashmir and referred to as Line of Control. Human rights workers have complained for years that innocent people have disappeared, been killed by government forces in staged gunbattles, and suspected rebels have been arrested and never heard from again in Indian administered Kashmir
  • October 2, 2009: The world’s largest Muslim grouping, the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), has named a special envoy to solve the Kashmir conflict between Pakistan and India, the Hindustan Times reported Friday, October 2. “We believe the OIC appointing a special envoy on Kashmir is a significant development,” Mirwaiz Umar Farooq, chairman of Kashmir’s All Party Hurriyat Conference (APHC), said. Abdullah bin Abdul Rahman, a Saudi official, was named the pan-Muslim organization’s envoy to the disputed Himalayan region during a meeting of the OIC Contact Group at the UN headquarters on Monday. Farooq said the move would help solve the conflict in line with aspirations of the Kashmiri people.”The OIC should press India to resolve the Kashmir dispute in accordance with the wishes and aspirations of the Kashmiri people,” he said
  • October 3, 2009: The Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on Thursday firmly told the Organisation of Islamic Countries (OIC) to keep its hands off Kashmir, adding that it had no locus standi to comment on the region that was essentially an internal matter of India. The meeting of the 56-nation grouping of Islamic countries in New York earlier this week issued a statement, saying it supported people of Jammu and Kashmir in realisation of their legitimate right of self determination in accordance with relevant UN resolutions and aspirations of Kashmiri people.The Indian Government has already given a strong rejoinder, condemning and rejecting the OIC statement. A government spokesman said: “It is regrettable that the OIC has commented on India’s internal affairs. We condemn and reject this.” “Inherent in OIC’s statements and actions on the issue of Jammu and Kashmir is a complete inability to understand India’s position,” he added.
  • October 14, 2009: Indian home minister P Chidambaram states he is willing to talk to every section in J&K. The stage seems set to restart the stalled talks with separatists. Union home minister P Chidambaram has said, “We will have a dialogue with every section of the people of Jammu & Kashmir. We mean dialogue process will start and it will be carried to its logical conclusion.”
  • October 14, 2009: India objects to Chinese activities in Pakistani administered Kashmir
  • October 20, 2009: A leader of a Party from Jammu and Kashmir accuses Indian’Govt changing Kashmir demography’
  • November 24, 2009: A delegation from the European Union issued a statement that Kashmir is an integral part of India. Lord Olof Lindgren, the head of the European Union delegation, stated that it is the opinion of the European Union that Kashmir is an integral part of India. However, he also said they were concerned about the human rights violation in Indian administered Kashmir. “Well, there are a lot of human rights issue that we are looking into. I cannot go into the details of those but those are of concern to the European Union and we discussed them with the Indian government and we have met the Human Rights Commissioner in the state. So we will follow these things with interest like we follow the situation in all parts of India,”. The EU delegation also said Kashmir needs a solution through peaceful talks between India, Pakistan and concerned people in Kashmir
  • November 24, 2009: A party from Jammu and Kashmir has said it was committed to a meaningful dialogue. Unless and until India takes steps as suggested by us no dialogue is possible
  • December 2, 2009 : A Kashmir based group, International People’s Tribunal on Human Rights and Justice, said that it had found 2600 bodies in unmarked graves during a three year survey. While the group did not who the buried were, it alleged that some could be innocent people killed by security force, and called for an investigation
  • December 4, 2009 : Unidentified men shot and critically injured Fazal Haque Qureshi, the senior most separatist leader and an important executive member of the moderate Hurriyat Conference in Srinagar. According to senior police officials, the attempt on the life of Qureshi was to “stall” the imminent dialogue process between New Delhi and the Hurriyat Conference However, New Delhi and the separatist conglomerate (Hurriyat) reaffirmed its commitment to the dialogue process. The Al-Nasireen, a little-known guerrilla group believed to be an operational combine of the Hizbul Mujahideen and Lashkar-e-Taiba terror groups, has owned responsibility for the attack
  • December 9, 2009 : Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari asked for United States to mediate between India and Pakistan on the Kashmir issue in his Op-ed in the New York Times
  • December 11, 2009 : United States ruled out any mediatory role in Kashmir stating that it should be resolved ultimately between Pakistan and India with the active involvement of the people of Kashmir
  • December 18, 2009: India withdraws 30,000 troops from Kashmir in one of the largest troop withdrawals in response to dramatic improvement in security situationIndia is believed to have 500,000 to 700,000 army and paramilitary soldiers in the portion of Kashmir it controls. The army won’t confirm its deployment levels
  • December 22, 2009 : a ‘Row over World Bank’s Kashmir clause’ happened between Indian Government and the World Bank .The contested clause where the Indian state of Jammu and kashmir government loan will ‘not be treated as a certificate that the disputed territory’ was an integral part of India’ (the disputed territory is Jammu and Kashmir). Indian finance minister Pranab Mukherjee has assured that the Indian government will oppose the contested disclaimer clause
  • January 6, 2010: At least three soldiers were killed and 11 injured in a suicide bombing outside an army barracks in Pakistani-administered Kashmir. Pakistani-administered-Kashmir has been largely free of violence over the years and has been said the incident was a ‘rare attack’, although recently attacks have been on the rise. Eight Shia Muslims were killed in a bombing last month. In November, three would-be suicide bombers blew themselves up in the regional capital, Muzaffarabad, as they were chased by police. The three men did not appear to be Kashmiris, police said. In June, a suicide bomber killed two soldiers and injured three others in Muzaffarabad. Wednesday’s bombing is the first outside Muzaffarabad and comes a day after Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari visited the area. It has raised fears the Taliban may be trying to expand their area of operations
  • January 7, 2010: A drawn-out gunfight between two militants and Indian security forces ended Thursday afternoon after the insurgents were gunned down inside a hotel in Srinagar’s Lal Chowk area. One police officer was killed in the attack and one bystander succumbed to his injuries. The security forces also rescued 10 people from a neighboring hotel in what is a crowded business district in the city. Officials said that one of the gunmen belonged to the banned Pakistan-based militant group Lashkar-e-Taiba. A pro-Pakistan militant group, Jamiat-ul-Mujahedin, claimed it was behind the assault. However, Indian police pointed the finger at the Pakistan-based group Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT). A terrorist killed during the Lal Chowk encounter had a pre-paid mobile connection used for communicating with his handlers in Pakistan. The terrorist, identified as Saifullah Qari, believed to be in his mid-twenties, had kept the mobile connection with him for a long period, and had meant to use it only during “operations”, official sources said. He was one of the two militants gunned down by security forces, to bring to end a 22-hour siege in the heart of Srinagar. This militant incident in Srinagar is almost two years after a consistent decline in violence. ‘Several rebel groups have been waging a separatist struggle in Indian Kashmir since 1989, wanting the Muslim-majority region to either merge with Pakistan or become independent. But violence began declining after India and Pakistan began a peace process in 2004. The region is now much calmer than it was at the height of the separatist insurgency in the 1990s, even though the peace process is stalled.’
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